The four forces
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The four forces of nature. Gravity, electromagnetism, Strong nuclear, and weak nuclear. Presented By: Brittany Kach and Julia Angotti. Gravity. Gravity is the force that pulls all objects in the universe towards each other.

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The four forces of nature

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The four forces of nature

The four forces

of nature

Gravity, electromagnetism,

Strong nuclear,

and weak nuclear

Presented By:

Brittany Kach and Julia Angotti



  • Gravity is the force that pulls all objects in the universe towards each other.

  • It is responsible for pulling you, me, and everything else on Earth towards the center of the planet.

  • Newton witnessed gravity when he saw an apple falling to the ground.

  • Everything on Earth falls with a velocity

    of 9.8 m/s squared.

  • No matter the mass of the object, it will

    always fall at that speed if it’s on Earth.



  • Newton also realized that the force responsible for pulling objects to the ground is the same one responsible for planetary orbit.

  • Einstein also agreed with this but changed how we looked at it.

  • He thought of gravity in space as a space-time fabric, in which everything in the universe rests on.

  • The bigger mass an object has, the larger

    the warp in space-time.

  • The warps in the fabric of causes planets

    to orbit.



  • Take something that has a large mass, for example, our sun.

  • Our sun would create a large dip in the space-time fabric.

  • Our Earth and all the other planets in our solar system orbit around the warps the sun makes in the fabric.

  • The wider the dip the object is going around, the longer it takes to complete an orbit.

  • This is also how satellites orbit

    around Earth.



  • Electromagnetism is the force that does many things.

  • Lightning is an example of electromagnetism in nature.

  • During a storm, the magnetic field around the Earth is optimized.

  • The build-up of electricity in the clouds charges with the magnetic field.

  • Whenever the charge gets big

    enough, it is released in a bolt

    of energy.

  • This is what lightning is.



  • You might wonder why, if gravity pulls us toward the center of the Earth, that we don’t just get pulled straight through the ground.

  • Well, electromagnetism is stronger than gravity and repels it.

  • Electromagnetisms is also in atoms.

  • Our atoms collide with the

    atoms in the ground.

  • Electromagnetism acts like

    a barrier between our atoms

    being pulled towards the Earth

    and the atoms of the surface

    of the Earth.





  • As stated before, electromagnetism is also found in atoms.

  • It is the force that keeps the negatively charged electrons in orbit around the nucleus of an atom.

  • It is a perfect example of electricity and magnetism.

  • The magnetism aspect is the electrons, which get negatively charged.

  • The electricity keeps it in orbit

    around the neutral neutrons and the

    positively charged electrons.

  • It creates the harmony of balanced

    charges throughout the entire atom.

Strong nuclear

Strong Nuclear

  • Strong Nuclear Force is found at the very center of the atoms.

  • It acts like a subatomic super glue.

  • This force binds the protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus of an atom.

  • The force binding them together is hundreds of times stronger than our force of gravity.

  • It is slim to nearly impossible to

    break apart the nucleus.

  • But, when it does happen,

    it creates a huge catastrophe.

Strong nuclear1

Strong Nuclear

  • The Strong Nuclear Force is also the cause for the devastating Nuclear Bomb.

  • When an atom gets unstable enough, the nucleus does break apart.

  • All the energy stored up from holding the nucleus together is released as a huge explosion.

  • This explosion completely incinerates

    anything it comes across, including

    whole cities.

  • This bomb is very hazardous and

    powerful, while all the energy is coming

    from a single atom.

Strong nuclear2

Strong Nuclear

  • But, how do we harness this power to be activated at a precise moment?

  • The answer is particle accelerators.

  • These are long enclosed underground tunnels that are used to upset and atom.

  • These work by pelting an unstable atom with protons in the tunnel until it starts to break


  • Then it goes to be transported

    into the bomb.

  • When the bomb drops on the

    targeted area, it causes the

    atom to become even more upset

    and completely break apart, causing

    the explosion we recognize.

Weak nuclear

Weak Nuclear

  • The weak nuclear force is also found in atoms, but is dormant until the nucleus breaks apart.

  • When the energy is released from the nucleus tearing apart, it creates a tremendous amount of heat.

  • With enough heat, certain particles can be fused and changed into another particle.

  • Weak nuclear force can change the neutral neutrons in the nucleus to positively charged protons.

  • When this happens, radio-

    activity is formed as a result.



Weak nuclear1

Weak Nuclear

  • Radioactivity is the particles that are emitted when an atom explodes.

  • There are three types of radiation – alpha particles (which are positively charged), beta particles (which are negatively charged), and gamma rays (which are neutral).

  • Because it is impossible to predict when an atomic nucleus will emit radioactivity, radioactivity is measured using half-lives, which is the period of time it takes for half the nuclei to decay.

  • Radioactivity causes superheroes and teenage mutant ninja turtles.

  • No, just kidding. Radioactivity can weaken and break up DNA, causing the cells to die or mutant in ways that may lead to cancer.



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