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The four forces of nature. Gravity, electromagnetism, Strong nuclear, and weak nuclear. Presented By: Brittany Kach and Julia Angotti. Gravity. Gravity is the force that pulls all objects in the universe towards each other.

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The four forces

of nature

Gravity, electromagnetism,

Strong nuclear,

and weak nuclear

Presented By:

Brittany Kach and Julia Angotti

  • Gravity is the force that pulls all objects in the universe towards each other.
  • It is responsible for pulling you, me, and everything else on Earth towards the center of the planet.
  • Newton witnessed gravity when he saw an apple falling to the ground.
  • Everything on Earth falls with a velocity

of 9.8 m/s squared.

  • No matter the mass of the object, it will

always fall at that speed if it’s on Earth.

  • Newton also realized that the force responsible for pulling objects to the ground is the same one responsible for planetary orbit.
  • Einstein also agreed with this but changed how we looked at it.
  • He thought of gravity in space as a space-time fabric, in which everything in the universe rests on.
  • The bigger mass an object has, the larger

the warp in space-time.

  • The warps in the fabric of causes planets

to orbit.

  • Take something that has a large mass, for example, our sun.
  • Our sun would create a large dip in the space-time fabric.
  • Our Earth and all the other planets in our solar system orbit around the warps the sun makes in the fabric.
  • The wider the dip the object is going around, the longer it takes to complete an orbit.
  • This is also how satellites orbit

around Earth.

  • Electromagnetism is the force that does many things.
  • Lightning is an example of electromagnetism in nature.
  • During a storm, the magnetic field around the Earth is optimized.
  • The build-up of electricity in the clouds charges with the magnetic field.
  • Whenever the charge gets big

enough, it is released in a bolt

of energy.

  • This is what lightning is.
  • You might wonder why, if gravity pulls us toward the center of the Earth, that we don’t just get pulled straight through the ground.
  • Well, electromagnetism is stronger than gravity and repels it.
  • Electromagnetisms is also in atoms.
  • Our atoms collide with the

atoms in the ground.

  • Electromagnetism acts like

a barrier between our atoms

being pulled towards the Earth

and the atoms of the surface

of the Earth.



  • As stated before, electromagnetism is also found in atoms.
  • It is the force that keeps the negatively charged electrons in orbit around the nucleus of an atom.
  • It is a perfect example of electricity and magnetism.
  • The magnetism aspect is the electrons, which get negatively charged.
  • The electricity keeps it in orbit

around the neutral neutrons and the

positively charged electrons.

  • It creates the harmony of balanced

charges throughout the entire atom.

strong nuclear
Strong Nuclear
  • Strong Nuclear Force is found at the very center of the atoms.
  • It acts like a subatomic super glue.
  • This force binds the protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus of an atom.
  • The force binding them together is hundreds of times stronger than our force of gravity.
  • It is slim to nearly impossible to

break apart the nucleus.

  • But, when it does happen,

it creates a huge catastrophe.

strong nuclear1
Strong Nuclear
  • The Strong Nuclear Force is also the cause for the devastating Nuclear Bomb.
  • When an atom gets unstable enough, the nucleus does break apart.
  • All the energy stored up from holding the nucleus together is released as a huge explosion.
  • This explosion completely incinerates

anything it comes across, including

whole cities.

  • This bomb is very hazardous and

powerful, while all the energy is coming

from a single atom.

strong nuclear2
Strong Nuclear
  • But, how do we harness this power to be activated at a precise moment?
  • The answer is particle accelerators.
  • These are long enclosed underground tunnels that are used to upset and atom.
  • These work by pelting an unstable atom with protons in the tunnel until it starts to break


  • Then it goes to be transported

into the bomb.

  • When the bomb drops on the

targeted area, it causes the

atom to become even more upset

and completely break apart, causing

the explosion we recognize.

weak nuclear
Weak Nuclear
  • The weak nuclear force is also found in atoms, but is dormant until the nucleus breaks apart.
  • When the energy is released from the nucleus tearing apart, it creates a tremendous amount of heat.
  • With enough heat, certain particles can be fused and changed into another particle.
  • Weak nuclear force can change the neutral neutrons in the nucleus to positively charged protons.
  • When this happens, radio-

activity is formed as a result.



weak nuclear1
Weak Nuclear
  • Radioactivity is the particles that are emitted when an atom explodes.
  • There are three types of radiation – alpha particles (which are positively charged), beta particles (which are negatively charged), and gamma rays (which are neutral).
  • Because it is impossible to predict when an atomic nucleus will emit radioactivity, radioactivity is measured using half-lives, which is the period of time it takes for half the nuclei to decay.
  • Radioactivity causes superheroes and teenage mutant ninja turtles.
  • No, just kidding. Radioactivity can weaken and break up DNA, causing the cells to die or mutant in ways that may lead to cancer.