An introduction to invertebrates
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An Introduction to Invertebrates. Chapter 33. 1 million species of animals… 95% are invertebrates!. 34-36 phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Lower Invertebrates. 5,500 species, mostly marine sponges Parazoans 2 layers unspecialized cells, no tissues Asymmetrical Suspension (filter) feeders

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An Introduction to Invertebrates

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An introduction to invertebrates

An Introduction to Invertebrates

Chapter 33


An introduction to invertebrates

  • 1 million species of animals…

  • 95% are invertebrates!


34 36 phyla of the animal kingdom

34-36 phyla of the AnimalKingdom


Lower invertebrates

Lower Invertebrates


Phylum porifera

  • 5,500 species, mostly marine sponges

  • Parazoans

    • 2 layers unspecialized cells, no tissues

  • Asymmetrical

  • Suspension (filter) feeders

  • Sessile

  • Hermaphroditic, but cross fertilize

  • Regenerative abilities

Phylum Porifera


An introduction to invertebrates

: opening

: CaCO3 skeletal fibers


Phylum cnidaria

  • ~10,000 species (jellyfish, sea anemones)

  • Live in shallow coastal marine waters

  • Eumetazoa

    • Organized into tissues

  • Diploblastic – 2 germ layers

  • Radially symmetrical

  • Carnivorous

    • Have stinging tentacles called cnidocytes

  • Gastrovascular cavity

    • Digestive system (only one opening)

Phylum Cnidaria


Life cycle

Life Cycle


An introduction to invertebrates

Class Hydrozoa: hydra

Class Scyphozoa: sea nettle

Class Cubozoa: box jelly

Class Anthozoa: brain coral


3 phylum ctenophora

  • All Marine (100 species)

  • Comb Jellies

    • Resemble Cnidarians

  • Lack stinging cells; have sticky cells to capture prey

3. Phylum Ctenophora


Phylum platyhelminthes

  • Bilaterally symmetrical

  • Triploblastic (all germ layers)

  • Gastrovascular cavity (both ends)

  • Sexual and asexual reproduction

  • Complex tissues: nerves and brain

  • Acoelomate

  • Mostly parasitic

Phylum Platyhelminthes


An introduction to invertebrates

Class Turberellaria: planaria

Class Trematoda: liver fluke

Class Monogenea: Dermophthirius

Class Cestoda: tapeworm


Phylum rotifera

  • Mainly freshwater

  • Pseudocoelomate

  • Complete digestive system

  • Use cilia to draw water into mouth

    • “wheel bearer”

  • Parthenogenesis: sexual-female dominate

Phylum Rotifera


Phylum braciopoda

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Coelomates

  • Triploblastic

  • Marine

  • Lophophores for feeding

    • Horseshoe-shaped/circular crown of ciliated tentacles surrounding mouth

Phylum Braciopoda


Phylum nemertea

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Triploblastic

  • Acoelomate

  • Mostly marine

  • Proboscis used to probe environment

  • Simple circulatory system – no heart, blood movement through body contractions

  • Complete digestive system

Phylum Nemertea


Phylum nematoda

  • 25,000 species

  • Bilateral Symmetrical

  • Organized into Tissues

  • Complete digestive tract

  • Sexual reproduction

  • Pseudocoelomic

Phylum Nematoda


Phylum annelida

  • Protostome

  • Coelomates

  • Segmented

  • Complete digestive system

  • Closed circulatory system

  • Nervous system

    • cerebral ganglia and ventral nerve cord

  • Hermaphrodites

    • cross fertilized - clitellum

Phylum Annelida


An introduction to invertebrates

Class

Polychaeta:

bristle worms

Class Oligochaeta: earth worms

Class Hirudinea: leeches


Higher invertebrates

Higher Invertebrates


Phylum mollusca

  • Protostomes

  • Coelomates

  • Body plan – 3 parts

    • Muscular head-foot (soft-bodied) for locomotion

    • Visceral miss – internal organs

    • Surrounded by mantle (CaCO3)

  • Some molluscs also have:

    • Mantle cavity – contains gills, anus, excretory pores

    • Radula for scraping food from surfaces

  • Most dioecious

Phylum Mollusca


An introduction to invertebrates

Class

Gastropoda:

snails

Class Polyplacophora: chitons

Class Cephalopoda: octopus

Class Bivalvia: clams


Phylum arthropoda

  • Two out of every three known species of animals are arthropods

  • Members of the phylum Arthropoda are found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere

  • Largest phylum (1,000,000 species)

  • Coelomates

  • Protostome

Phylum Arthropoda


An introduction to invertebrates

  • Segmentation

    • allows for specialization of body parts

      • Head

      • Thorax

      • Abdomen

  • Hard exoskeleton

    • Cuticle made with chitin

    • Prevents water loss: move onto land

    • Organisms must molt (ectdysis)

  • Jointed appendages

    • allows for specialization

      • Walking

      • Feeding

      • Copulation


  • An introduction to invertebrates

    Subphylum Cheliceriformes:

    spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, mites

    Subphylum Myriopoda:

    centipedes, millipedes


    An introduction to invertebrates

    Subphylum Hexapoda: insects

    Subphylum Crustacea: crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp


    Phylum echinodermata

    • Radial symmetry

    • Deuterostomes

    • Coelomates

    • Sessile or sedentary marine forms

    • Well developed organs and systems

      • Have an internal skeleton

      • Water vascular system

        • tube feet that function for locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange

    • Dioecious

    Phylum Echinodermata


    An introduction to invertebrates

    Class

    Asteroidea: sea stars

    Class Ophiuroidea: brittle stars

    Class Echinoidea: sea urchins


    An introduction to invertebrates

    Class

    Crinoidea:

    sea lilies

    Class Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers

    Class Concentriclodea:

    sea daisies


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