“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 62

“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 87 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that People flee the world’s Haitis for a combination of motives. All are deserving of some compassion but how much?” Newsweek , Dec. 4 1991. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

Download Presentation

“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that

People flee the world’s Haitis for a combination of motives.

All are deserving of some compassion but how much?”

Newsweek, Dec. 4 1991

“Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed, to me”

Inscribed at base of Statue of Liberty, by Emma Lazarus


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

As you know

in the developing world treatable

infectious diseases remain big killers

Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age

0-44 (World Health Organization)


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Now it’s time to look at number 3:

Malaria

Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age

0-44 (World Health Organization)


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

That’s right:

300 million new cases per year

making it the most prevalent serious infectious disease!

Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age

0-44 (World Health Organization)


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

  • 2.1 billion people live in MALARIOUS areas


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

  • Like HIV and TB, malaria is

  • unequally distributed, even in the tropics


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

  • In areas of Africa with high transmission

  • there are 2700 deaths per day = 2 per minute

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

It’s especially hard on kids


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

It’s especially hard on kids

75% of the deaths are among African children


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


What is malaria

What Is malaria?

  • A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium


What is malaria1

What Is malaria?

  • Transmitted only by Anopheles Mosquitoes

    (>60 species!)

Seattle Biomedical Research Institute


What is malaria2

What Is malaria?

  • The Disease can be Acute or Chronic


Acute symptoms

Acute Symptoms

  • Classical features include cyclic symptoms

    • Cold stage: chills and shaking

    • Hot stage: fever, headache, vomiting, seizures in children

    • Sweating stage: weakness

    • Feel well for period of time, then cycle repeats itself

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


In fact it is several different diseases

In fact it is several different diseases


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Each disease has a distinct course

Each disease has a distinct course


Each disease has a distinct course1

Each disease has a distinct course

“Tertian Malaria”

(P.falciparum, P.ovale and P.vivax)

fever occurs every third day.

“Quartan Malaria”

(P. malariae)

fever occurs every fourth day.

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


Each disease has a distinct course2

Each disease has a distinct course

P.ovale and P.vivax

can cause chronic malaria,

reappearing after months or years

due to latent parasites in liver

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution

Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution1

Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution2

Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Malaria damages the body in a number of ways

Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

  • Red blood cell destruction -> anemia

  • Waves of parasites bursting red blood cells

    Lead to classic cycles of fever and chills


Malaria damages the body in a number of ways1

Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

  • Changes adhesive properties of infected

    Red blood cells -> blocking blood vessels leading to Tissue hypoxia


Malaria damages the body in a number of ways2

Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

  • If this happens in brain it is cerebral malaria

    which is often fatal

    Blocking blood

    vessels can also

    cause kidney failure


Malaria damages the body in a number of ways3

Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

In severe cases 20% of patients can die,

even with the best care


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

DIAGNOSIS

  • Gold standard: Multiple thick and thin smears


Malaria is not currently a serious threat in the us

Malaria is not currently a serious threat in the US

  • 1300 cases in US per year

  • Essentially all “imported”

  • Also transfusion related malaria

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Although….

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Malaria is not currently a serious threat in the us1

Malaria is not currently a serious threat in the US


However this was not always the case

However, this was not always the case


Not that long ago

Not that long ago….

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


It could come back

It could come back!

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Let step back and lookat the parasites that cause malaria


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

It was discovered more than 100 years ago

A French army doctor in Algeria observed parasites inside red blood cells of malaria patients and proposed for the first time that a protozoan caused disease

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

1907 Nobel Prize for Physiology

or Medicine!

French army doctor in Algeria observed parasites inside red blood cells of malaria patients and proposed for the first time that a protozoan caused disease

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

So just who

is this

Plasmodium?

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

It’s not a

bacterium or

virus but a

eukaryote

like us

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

However,

unlike us

it lives a

solitary life

as a single

cell

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Let’s go back to the family tree


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Let’s go back to the family tree

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Let’s go back to the family tree

You and me

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

mushrooms

You and me

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

mushrooms

You and me

plants

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

We are family….

mushrooms

You and me

Plasmodium

plants

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

They are on the same region of

the eukaryote tree as plants

You and me

Plasmodium

plants

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Consistent with this,

we now know Plasmodium

and its relatives have a

remnant of the chloroplast

called the apicoplast

which may help it digest

heme and other things

It harvests from red blood cells


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Consistent with this,

we now know Plasmodium

and its relatives have a

remnant of the chloroplast

called the apicoplast

which may help it digest

heme and other things

It harvests from red blood cells

We don’t have this sort of organelle

How might we use that fact??!


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Plasmodium and its relatives

also have a specialized

Structure at one end of the cell

Involved in invading other cells


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Plasmodium’s closer relatives

Include parasites causing

Babesiosis, Toxoplasmosis,

And Cryptosporidiosis


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Plasmodium has a wildly complex life cycle

6

2

5

3

4

1

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

And that’s just in the mosquito!

6

2

5

3

4

1

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

The wildly complex life cycle continued

7

8

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Had enough yet??

9

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Now we get to the troublesome stage

Cycles of replication inside red blood cells

Lead to cycles of fever and chills

And aggregated blood cells block blood vessels

10

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

We also need to get back to the next mosquito to complete the cycle

11

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


The awkward fact with which us policy wrestles is that

Here’s Glaxo-

SmithKline’s

Cliff Notes

version


  • Login