Revolutionary Socialism. Marxist-Leninist Countries at height of Cold War. Overview. Leninism and the Vanguard Party Trotsky and the Permanent Revolution Stalin and Socialism in One Country Mao and Third World Revolutions. The Goal.
“The bourgeoisie, during its rule of scarce one hundred years, has created more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generations together. Subjection of nature’s forces to man, machinery, application of chemistry to industry and agriculture, steam-navigation, railways, electric telegraphs, clearing of ground -- what earlier century had even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labour?” -- Communist Manifesto
Capitalism doesn’t allowus to enjoy the leisure timemade possible by the increased productivity ofcapitalism. Socialism will.
“That the number of the wealthy increases and does not diminish is not an invention of bourgeois ‘harmony economists,’ but a fact established by the boards of assessment for taxes, often to the chagrin of those concerned, a fact which can no longer be disputed…”
“One has not overcome Utopianism if one assumes that there is in the present, or ascribes to the present, what is to be in the future. We have to take working men as they are. And they are neither so universally pauperised as was set out in the Communist Manifesto, nor so free from prejudices and weaknesses as their courtiers wish to make us believe. They have the virtues and failings of the economic and social conditions under which they live. And neither those conditions nor their effects can be put on one side from one day to another.”
“Constitutional legislation…is stronger than the revolution scheme where prejudice and the limited horizon of the great mass of the people appear as hindrances to social progress, and it offers greater advantages where it is a question of the creation of permanent economic arrangements capable of lasting; in other words, it is best adapted to positive social political work.”
The other road to socialism may be considerably shorter, and that’s by violent revolution
class at the expense
of the poorer countries in the world
“Monopolies, oligarchy, the striving for domination and not for freedom, the exploitation of an increasing number of small or weak nations by a handful of the richest or most powerful nations-- all these have given birth to those distinctive characteristics of imperialism which compel us to define it as a parasitic or decaying capitalism.”
-- “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism
“At this point, we wish to state only that the role of vanguard fighter can be fulfilled only by a party that is guided by the most advanced theory.”
-- Lenin, “What is to be Done?”
“The history of all countries shows that the working class, exclusively by its own effort, is able to develop only trade union consciousness, i.e., the conviction that it is necessary to combine in unions, fight the employers, and strive to compel the government to pass necessary labour legislation, etc.”
-- What is to be Done?Revolutionary Socialism
“Working-class consciousness cannot be genuine political consciousness unless the workers are trained to respond to all cases of tyranny, oppression, violence, and abuse, no matter what class is affected – unless they are trained, moreover, to respond from a Social-Democratic point of view and no other.”
“Class political consciousness can be brought to the workers only from without, that is, only from outside the economic struggle, from outside the sphere of relations between workers and employers.”
-- What is to be Done?
“And the dictatorship of the proletariat, i.e., the organization of the vanguard of the oppressed as the ruling class for the purpose of suppressing the oppressors, cannot result merely in an expansion of democracy…
“the dictatorship of the proletariat imposes a series of restrictions on the freedom of the oppressors, the exploiters, the capitalists. We must suppress them in order to free humanity from wage slavery, their resistance must be crushed by force….”
“Democracy for the vast majority of the people, and suppression by force, i.e., exclusion from democracy, of the exploiters and oppressors of the people-- this is the change democracy undergoes during the transition from capitalism to communism.”
“With regard to countries with a belated bourgeois development, especially the colonial and semi-colonial countries…the complete and genuine solution of their tasks of achieving democracy and national emancipation is conceivable only through the dictatorship of the proletariat as the leader of the subjugated nation, above all of its peasant masses.” -- Trotsky, The Permanent Revolution
*recall, the communist party represents the interests of the working
class, and that the working class is everybody
“In the Union of Socialist Soviets the workers and peasants government has called upon the whole mass of the population to help build a new culture – and it follows from this that the responsibility for mistakes, for hitches, for spoilage, for every display of middle-class meanness, for perfidy, duplicity and unscrupulousness lies on each and all of us. That means our criticism must really be self-criticism; it means that we must devise a system of socialist morality as a regulating factor in our work and our relationships.” -- Maxim Gorky, “Soviet Literature”
“Insofar as capitalism has created a world market, a world division of labor, and world productive forces, it has also prepared the world economy as a whole for socialist transformation.”
-- Permanent Revolution
“The dictatorship of the proletariat which has risen to power as the leader of the democratic revolution is inevitably and very quickly confronted with tasks, the fulfillment of which is bound up with deep inroads into the rights of bourgeois property. The democratic revolution grows over directly into the socialist revolution and thereby becomes a permanent revolution.”
If we want true freedom and democracy, then we need to substitute the “dictatorship of the bourgeoisie” with the “dictatorship of the proletariat.”
“The enemy will not perish of himself. Neither the Chinese reactionaries nor the aggressive forces of U.S. imperialism in China will step down from the stage of history of their own accord.”
So violent revolution is necessary, and …
“If there is to be revolution, there must be a revolutionary party. Without a revolutionary party, without a party built on the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory and in the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary style, it is impossible to lead the working class and the broad masses of the people in defeating imperialism and its running dogs.”
Mao’s idea was that out on the periphery, where there is no real industrial working class, the vanguard party can lead the peasant class to topple regimes which support imperialist countries or the imperialists themselves
“A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.”
“Every Communist must grasp the truth, ‘Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.’"
So the struggle for democracy then begins with the peasant and working classes of the lesser developed countries, in the form of national liberationmovements initially.
The proletariat in the industrialized countries will become increasingly radicalized and increasingly class conscious