Development Indicators. Nilometer. Situation to be verified. Determine the optimal tax level. Criteria. Water level of Nile. The level of water of the Nile determines the yield of crops. The tax level depends largely on the yields. Causality (Hypothesis). Indicator.
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Situation to be verified
Determine the optimal tax level
Water level of Nile
The level of water of the Nile determines the yield of crops.
The tax level depends largely on the yields
Cubits (measure of length, 45.75 cm; Elle) on the Nilometer indicating the water level
Between 13 and 16
13 enough; 14 joy; 15 security; 16 abundance
17 floods, disaster
Average measures over years (benchmarks)
Observation on Nilometer by qayas (officials)
Ruler (Pharao, Wesir)
Use for steering (decision-making)
To determine the tax level according to crop yield
- key information to guide implementation
- Signals of change that show the extent of progress
• Initially, the level of “development” of one country was measured through its average income, so called “gross domestic product” (GDP).
• Financial means alone cannot cover all aspects of “development”
• Around 1990, a new index was created
Very high level of development
High level of development
Medium level of development
Low level of development
Countries not included, due to lack of data
The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.
The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of income per capita can end up with such different human development outcomes.
The Bahamas and New Zealand have similar levels of income per person, but life expectancy and expected years of schooling differ greatly between the two countries, resulting in New Zealand having a much higher HDI value than the Bahamas.
The HDI should allow a measurement of the level of development, which is closer to people's needs and takes into account many aspects of development.
Development should increase the possibilities of people.
Development objectives should include values such as (for example)
All data are included in the yearly publication of the
Human Development Report
Cumulative Impacts of Poverty
Inability to afford adequate housing
Lack of collateral collateral/access to credits for business or housing
Sense of insecurity, isolation, and disempowerment
Tenure insecurity, evictions, loss of small savings invested in housing
Limited or no safety (social, economic) net
Lack of legal protection/rule of law and citizen rights
Inability to have a regular job, lack of regular income and social security
Lack of infrastructure;
un-hygienic living conditions, low quality public services
Poor health, poor education*
(based on IIED, WB)
of Poverty and Wellbeing
(based on OECD 2001)
Gross national happiness
an attempt to define an indicator that measures quality of life or social progress in more holistic and psychological terms than only the economic indicator of gross domestic product (GDP).
(1) Economic Wellness:Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of economic metrics such as consumer debt, average income to consumer price index ratio and income distribution
(2) Environmental Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of environmental metrics such as pollution, noise and traffic
(3) Physical Wellness: Indicated via statistical measurement of physical health metrics such as severe illnesses
(4) Mental Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of mental health metrics such as usage of antidepressants and rise or decline of psychotherapy patients
(5) Workplace Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of labor metrics such as jobless claims, job change, workplace complaints and lawsuits
(6) Social Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of social metrics such as discrimination, safety, divorce rates, complaints of domestic conflicts and family lawsuits, public lawsuits, crime rates
(7) Political Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of political metrics such as the quality of local democracy, individual freedom, and foreign conflicts.