Development indicators
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Development Indicators. Nilometer. Situation to be verified. Determine the optimal tax level. Criteria. Water level of Nile. The level of water of the Nile determines the yield of crops. The tax level depends largely on the yields. Causality (Hypothesis). Indicator.

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Development Indicators

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Development indicators

Development Indicators


Nilometer

Nilometer

Situation to be verified

Determine the optimal tax level

Criteria

Water level of Nile

The level of water of the Nile determines the yield of crops.

The tax level depends largely on the yields

Causality

(Hypothesis)

Indicator

Cubits (measure of length, 45.75 cm; Elle) on the Nilometer indicating the water level

Target

Between 13 and 16

12 hunger

13 enough; 14 joy; 15 security; 16 abundance

17 floods, disaster

Comparison

Average measures over years (benchmarks)

Observation on Nilometer by qayas (officials)

Method

Responsability

Ruler (Pharao, Wesir)

Use for steering (decision-making)

To determine the tax level according to crop yield


Introduction to indicators

Introduction to Indicators

  • Indicators should provide

    - key information to guide implementation

    - Signals of change that show the extent of progress

  • An indicator is a variable that allows the verification of changes in the development intervention or shows results relative to what was planned (DAC/OECD)


Why are indicators important

Why are indicators important?

  • To enhance external accountability

    • indicators should provide the basis for transparent communication with external stakeholders – to whom the development intervention is more or less accountable

  • To improve wider learning

    • with managed exchange within and between organisations reduce costs and increase effectiveness of development actions

  • To improve performance

    • feedback mechanism with indicators allows to make appropriate management decisions to improve performance


How to measure development

How to measure development?

• Initially, the level of “development” of one country was measured through its average income, so called “gross domestic product” (GDP).

• Financial means alone cannot cover all aspects of “development”

• Around 1990, a new index was created


Human development index hdi

Human Development Index (HDI)


5 groups

5 groups

Countries* with

Very high level of development

High level of development

Medium level of development

Low level of development

Countries not included, due to lack of data


What does the hdi tell us

What does the HDI tell us?

The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.

The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of income per capita can end up with such different human development outcomes.

An example

The Bahamas and New Zealand have similar levels of income per person, but life expectancy and expected years of schooling differ greatly between the two countries, resulting in New Zealand having a much higher HDI value than the Bahamas.

  • These differences can start debate about government policy priorities.


Development indicators

The HDI should allow a measurement of the level of development, which is closer to people's needs and takes into account many aspects of development.

Development should increase the possibilities of people.

Development objectives should include values such as (for example)

  • better nutrition

  • health, education

  • recreation

  • opportunities for participation of the people


Development indicators

All data are included in the yearly publication of the

Human Development Report


Development indicators

7

Cumulative Impacts of Poverty

Inability to afford adequate housing

Lack of collateral collateral/access to credits for business or housing

Sense of insecurity, isolation, and disempowerment

Tenure insecurity, evictions, loss of small savings invested in housing

Limited or no safety (social, economic) net

Lack of legal protection/rule of law and citizen rights

Inability to have a regular job, lack of regular income and social security

Lack of infrastructure;

un-hygienic living conditions, low quality public services

Poor health, poor education*

(based on IIED, WB)


Development indicators

8

Core Dimensions

of Poverty and Wellbeing

  • Protective

  • Capabilities enabling people to withstand:

  • economic shocks

  • natural disasters

  • conflicts

  • Political

  • Capabilities including:

  • human rights

  • voice

  • political freedom

  • participation

  • Economic

  • Capabilities to:

  • earn income

  • consume

  • have assets

  • Human

  • Capabilities, based on:

  • health

  • education

  • membership

  • shelter

  • Socio-cultural

  • Capabilities concerning:

  • dignity

  • valued membership of society

  • social status

(based on OECD 2001)


Another culture another procedure bhutan

Another culture – another procedureBhutan

Gross national happiness

an attempt to define an indicator that measures quality of life or social progress in more holistic and psychological terms than only the economic indicator of gross domestic product (GDP).


Assessment of socioeconomic development by tracking seven development areas

Assessment of socioeconomic development by tracking seven development areas

(1) Economic Wellness:Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of economic metrics such as consumer debt, average income to consumer price index ratio and income distribution

(2) Environmental Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of environmental metrics such as pollution, noise and traffic

(3) Physical Wellness: Indicated via statistical measurement of physical health metrics such as severe illnesses

(4) Mental Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of mental health metrics such as usage of antidepressants and rise or decline of psychotherapy patients

(5) Workplace Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of labor metrics such as jobless claims, job change, workplace complaints and lawsuits

(6) Social Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of social metrics such as discrimination, safety, divorce rates, complaints of domestic conflicts and family lawsuits, public lawsuits, crime rates

(7) Political Wellness: Indicated via direct survey and statistical measurement of political metrics such as the quality of local democracy, individual freedom, and foreign conflicts.


Multidimensional poverty index mpi database household surveys in 104 countries

Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)database: household surveys in 104 countries

deprived if:

  • no household member has completed five year of schooling

  • any school-aged child is not attending school in years 1 to 8

  • any adult or child for whom there is nutritional information is malnourished

  • sanitation facility not improved or improved but shared

  • ……


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