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Toward an Ontology for Measuring Systems Engineering Return on Investment. Advancing the knowledge of systems engineering. Eric Honour +1 (850) 479-1985 [email protected] Dr. Ricardo Valerdi +1 (617) 253-8583 [email protected] Version. Topics. SE-ROI Project “Ontology” concept

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toward an ontology for measuring systems engineering return on investment

Toward an Ontology for Measuring Systems Engineering Return on Investment

Advancing the knowledge of systems engineering

Eric Honour

+1 (850) 479-1985

[email protected]

Dr. Ricardo Valerdi

+1 (617) 253-8583

[email protected]

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

Version

topics
Topics
  • SE-ROI Project
  • “Ontology” concept
  • COSYSMO work toward ontology
  • Categorization from current standards
  • Future directions

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

systems engineering return on investment

Systems Engineering Return on Investment

Summary of the SE-ROI Project

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

heuristic claim of se

Traditional Design

Risk

SYSTEM

DESIGN

DETAIL

DESIGN

PRODUCTION

INTEGRATION

Time

TEST

Risk

Saved

Time/

Cost

“System Thinking” Design

Time

Heuristic Claim of SE
  • Better systems engineering leads to
    • Better system quality/value
    • Lower cost
    • Shorter schedule

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

value of se 2004 results

Greater SE Effort led to better cost/schedule compliance and better predictability

Value of SE – 2004 Results

Problems/challenges:

  • Quantitative data on SE not available in program databases
    • All data points were subjective
  • Detailed structure not available

Value = 1.0 if program met cost/schedule goals

Each dot is one program, with sizes between $1M and $6.5B

Source: SECOE 01-03INCOSE 2003

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

se roi project
SE-ROI Project
  • Interviews
  • Just-completed programs
  • Key PM/SE/Admin
  • Translate program data into project structure
  • Desired Results
  • Statistical correlation of SE methods with program success.
  • Leading SE indicators that can be used during a program.
  • Identification of good SE practices under different conditions.
  • Program characterization
  • Program success data
  • SE data (hours, quality, methods)

Statistical correlation

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

ontology concept

“Ontology” Concept

What is this word and how does it relate to systems engineering?

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

current state of se definition
Current State of SE Definition
  • Fragmented by domain opinions
  • Military – DOD/MOD
  • Space - NASA/ESA
  • Commercial products
  • Aircraft
  • Automobiles
  • Nuclear waste
  • Process engineering
  • Tool vendors
  • Etc. Etc. Etc.
  • Fragmented by discipline opinions
  • Technical leaders
  • System architects
  • System analysts
  • Requirements engineers
  • Operations analysts
  • Design engineers
  • Fragmented by standards
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • IEEE-1220
  • ISO-15288
  • CMMI
  • MIL-STD-499C

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

ontology
Ontology

“…a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being”

aesthetics

interfaces

functions

structure

inputs

components

methods

outputs

categories

understanding

  • POSIWID – The Purpose of a Systems Is What It Does
  • Jack Ring
  • The purpose of systems engineering is different in the eyes of different people, because they perceive different actions/results from SE

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

purpose of this paper
Purpose of this Paper
  • Explore the variety of what people see in SE
  • Formulate some general categories
  • Interpret historical SE effort data
  • Provide a structure for the data-gathering in the SE-ROI project.

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

cosysmo work toward ontology

COSYSMO work toward ontology

An exploration of ontology as performed in the COSYSMO project

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

cosysmo effort profile
COSYSMO Effort Profile
  • How is Systems Engineering effort distributed over time?

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

slide13

Effort Distribution Across

ANSI/EIA 632 Fundamental Processes

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

slide14

Systems Engineering Effort Profile

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

categorization from current standards

Categorization from Current Standards

The start of an ontology, by identifying the widely-accepted categories.

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

categories in the standards
Categories in the Standards
  • Mission/Purpose Definition
  • Requirements Management
  • System Architecting
  • System Implementation
  • Technical Analysis
  • Technical Management/Leadership
  • Verification & Validation

CMMI

ANSI/EIA-632

MIL-STD-499C

IEEE-1220

ISO-15288

Colored boxes on following slides show the terminology used by each standard

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

mission purpose definition
Mission/Purpose Definition
  • Define the mission or purpose of the new/changed system.
    • Typically described in the language of the system users rather than in technical language
  • CMMI
  • Develop customer requirements
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • Not included
  • MIL-STD-499C
  • Not included
  • IEEE-1220
  • Define customer expectations
  • ISO-15288
  • Stakeholder needs definition

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

requirements management
Requirements Management
  • Creation and management of requirements
    • Efforts to define, analyze, validate, and manage the requirements
  • CMMI
  • Requirements development
  • Requirements mgmt
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • System design
  • Requirements definition
  • MIL-STD-499C
  • System requirements analysis and validation
  • IEEE-1220
  • Requirements analysis
  • ISO-15288
  • Requirements analysis

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

system architecting
System Architecting
  • Define the system in terms of its component elements and their relationships
    • Diagrams that depict the system, its environment, components, and relationships
  • CMMI
  • Technical solution
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • System design
  • Solution definition
  • MIL-STD-499C
  • System product technical requirements analysis and validation
  • Design or physical solution representation
  • IEEE-1220
  • Synthesis
  • ISO-15288
  • Architectural design
  • System life cycle mgmt

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

system implementation
System Implementation
  • Development/completion of the system
    • Specific system-level efforts in the standards are system integration and transition to use
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • Product realization
  • Implementation
  • Transition to use
  • CMMI
  • Product integration
  • MIL-STD-499C
  • Not included
  • IEEE-1220
  • Not included
  • ISO-15288
  • Implementation
  • Integration
  • Transition

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

technical analysis
Technical Analysis
  • System-level technical analysis
    • Assessment of system performance
    • Trade-off analysis of alternatives
  • CMMI
  • Measurement and analysis
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • Technical evaluation
  • System analysis
  • MIL-STD-499C
  • Functional analysis, allocations and validation
  • Assessments of system effectiveness, cost, schedule, and risk
  • Tradeoff analyses
  • IEEE-1220
  • Functional analysis
  • Requirements trade studies and assessments
  • Functional trade studies and assessments
  • Design trade studies and assessments
  • ISO-15288
  • Requirements analysis

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

technical management leadership
Technical Management/Leadership
  • Guiding the engineering teams involved in system design programs
    • Size/complexity of teams demands leadership
  • CMMI
  • Project planning
  • Project monitoring & control
  • Supplier agreement mgmt
  • Process/product quality assur.
  • Configuration mgmt
  • Integrated project mgmt
  • Decision analysis/resolution
  • Quantitative project mgmt
  • Risk mgmt
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • Technical Mgmt
  • Planning
  • Assessment
  • Control
  • MIL-STD-499C
  • Planning
  • Monitoring
  • Decision making, control, and baseline maintenance
  • Risk mgmt
  • Baseline change control
  • Interface mgmt
  • Data mgmt
  • Subcontract mgmt
  • Technical reviews/audits
  • IEEE-1220
  • Technical mgmt
  • Track analysis data
  • Track requirements and design changes
  • Track performance
  • Track product metrics
  • Update specifications
  • Update architectures
  • Update plans
  • Maintain database
  • ISO-15288
  • Planning, Assessment, Control
  • Decision mgmt
  • Config mgmt
  • Acquisition, Supply
  • Resource mgmt
  • Risk mgmt

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

verification validation
Verification & Validation
  • Verification: comparison of the system with its requirements through objective evidence.
  • Validation: comparison of the system or requirements with the intended mission
  • ANSI/EIA-632
  • Technical Evaluation
  • Requirements validation
  • System verification
  • End products validation
  • CMMI
  • Verification
  • Validation
  • MIL-STD-499C
  • Design or physical solution verification and validation
  • IEEE-1220
  • Requirement verification
  • Functional verification
  • Design verification
  • ISO-15288
  • Verification
  • Validation
  • Quality mgmt

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

future directions

Future Directions

Where is SE-ROI going?

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

project advisory group
Project Advisory Group
  • Group of interested people/organizations
    • Communicate via web, telecon, meetings
    • Help define the data organization
    • Build public interest in the project
    • Provide access to real programs
    • View interim (protected) data as it develops

Current members come from:

AF Institute of Technology

Northrop Grumman

DOD Office of Secy of Defense

DRS

Johns Hopkins Univ

MIT

The Mitre Corp

NAVAIR

Raytheon

Rand Corporation

Rafael

Systems & Software Consortium

Univ of South Australia

USN Chief Engineer

For information, see http://www.hcode.com/seroi/

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

summary
Summary
  • Systems engineering current state of knowledge is fragmented
  • Broadly-accepted ontology is needed
  • SE-ROI project needs categorization now
    • Structure the data to be correlated
    • Discover leading SE indicators
    • Identify SE best practices and methods
  • Categorization across standards helps develop the needed ontology

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

questions

Questions?

Eric Honour

+1 (850) 479-1985

[email protected]

Dr. Ricardo Valerdi

+1 (617) 253-8583

[email protected]

For information, see http://www.hcode.com/seroi/

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

survey of se roi knowledge
Survey of SE-ROI Knowledge

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

next steps
Next Steps
  • Define interview data sheets
    • Use this categorization
  • Identify and interview trial projects
    • Obtain initial data
    • Evaluate the interview data sheets
  • Identify and interview projects
    • Ongoing effort for 2-3 years
  • Perform statistical correlation work
    • Ongoing effort for duration of project
    • Interim reports to participating organizations
  • Final report expected 2009

Toward Ontology for SE-ROI

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