Pic/Puzzle of the Day & Announcements for Nov 3, 2008
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Pic/Puzzle of the Day & Announcements for Nov 3, 2008. Quiz #4: Wednesday. HW4 solns: Posted later today. Other: Office hours today, until 3 (other by appt) Guest Lecture on Mars! (Wednesday/Monday). Today:. 1. Geology of Mercury & Venus 2. Venusian Atmosphere

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Pic/Puzzle of the Day & Announcements for Nov 3, 2008

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Pic

Pic/Puzzle of the Day & Announcements for Nov 3, 2008

Quiz #4: Wednesday

HW4 solns: Posted later today

  • Other: Office hours today, until 3

  • (other by appt)

    • Guest Lecture on Mars! (Wednesday/Monday)


Pic

Today:

1. Geology of Mercury & Venus

2. Venusian Atmosphere

3. Earth vs. Venus - This planet is TOO HOT


Pic

Mercury - An “Extreme” Planet

  • Closest Planetto the Sun

    • 0.38 AU, 2.5 x closer than Earth

    • sunlight is 6.25 x more intense!

  • Highest Density other than Earth

  • Largest Temperature Swings

    • more than 1000 F!

  • Interesting Rotation

  • Global Magnetic Field


  • Pic

    Mercury in the Sky

    • Closest Planetto the Sun

      • Hard to observe

    What time of day is Mercury observable?


    Pic

    Mercury - Early Observations

    • Closest Planetto the Sun

      • Hard to observe (imagination required!)

    Giovanni Schiaparelli

    (1835-1910)

    • Mercury Rotates Slowly

      • Synchronous?

      • T?


    Pic

    Mercury - Synchronous Rotation?

    1962 - Radiation from Mercury not so cold

    X

    Not Synchronous

    1965 - Dyce & Pettengill

    DOPPLER EFFECT

    How??


    Pic

    Mercury - Synchronous Rotation?

    1962 - Radiation from Mercury not so cold

    X

    Not Synchronous

    1965 - Dyce & Pettengill

    Rotation Period = 59 Days

    (Orbital Period = 88 Days)


    Pic

    Earth rotates on its axis ~365 times for each revolution around the Sun

    Mercury rotates on its axis exactly 1.5 times for each revolution around the Sun

    (3:2 spin-orbit resonance)

    How long is a day on Mercury?

    Rotation Period = 59 Days

    (Orbital Period = 88 Days)

    1 day on Mercury = 176 Earth days

    Longer than 1 year!


    Pic

    ?

    Mercury & Einstein

    Observation: Mercury’s Orbit Precesses

    General Relativity!

    Space is curved by Sun’s mass!

    WHY??


    Pic

    Mercury - Overview

    Planet of Extremes


    Pic

    Large iron core

    Small Magnetic Field (1% Earth)

    Mercury - Spacecraft data

    Mariner 10: Venus/Mercury flyby (1974)

    Flew by 3x before it ran out of fuel!

    Imaged 45% of surface

    Calculated HIGH density (4.4g/cm3)


    Pic

    Mercury’s Magnetic Field - Why?

    Small Magnetic Field (1% Earth)

    2007 - Mercury has a small molten core!


    Pic

    Mercury - Spacecraft data

    Messenger - Recent close approach Feb. 1 & Oct. 6, 2008!

    Mercury orbit - March 18, 2011


    Pic

    Messenger Terrain

    South Pole


    Pic

    Messenger Terrain - Similar to Moon!


    Pic

    Mercury - Surface Features

    Heavily Cratered Areas - Old (Heavy Bombardment)

    Large smooth Basins - Younger, Lava from Large impacts?


    Pic

    Mercury - Surface Features

    Messenger Images


    Pic

    Mercury - Surface Features

    Caloris Basin - largest feature on Mercury

    -size of Texas

    -jumbled terrain opposite

    -caused by large impact


    Pic

    Mercury - Surface Features

    Scarps: Large cliffs caused by contraction of surface

    -3 km high

    -100s of km across

    -contraction from cooling

    (planet shrank by ~20km!)

    -closed off volcanic vents


    Pic

    Mercury - Unsolved Mysteries

    - “Mysterious dark blue material??”

    -Ice on Poles?

    -size of molten core?


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