Combating Hidden Hunger through Bio-fortification
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Combating Hidden Hunger through Bio-fortification Annual Program Review 2011 Nairobi, Kenya 10 May 2011. Martha Nyagaya. Hidden hunger- A m assive p roblem. Map: USAID. Map: USAID. 10m deaths/yr, 50% due to malnutrition, more illness $ diseases low cognitive ability,

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Martha nyagaya

Combating Hidden Hunger through Bio-fortification

Annual Program Review 2011

Nairobi, Kenya10 May2011

Martha Nyagaya


Hidden hunger a m assive p roblem

Hidden hunger- A massive problem

Map: USAID

Map: USAID

10m deaths/yr, 50% due to malnutrition, more illness $ diseases low cognitive ability,

Low capacity for physical labor, stunted impaired growth, poor reproductive health,

Decline in productivity>lower GDP


Martha nyagaya

Bio-fortification

ProVitamin A

Iron

Zinc

The process of improving the

nutritive value of staple foods

through:

  • Conventional breeding

  • Genetic engineering

  • Fertilizer with trace elements


Martha nyagaya

Bio-fortification: Complements existing nutrition interventions

Commercial Fortification

Supplementation

Dietary Diversity

Biofortification


Bio fortification a sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition

Bio-fortification- A sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition

Targets the poor – who depend heavily on staple foods

Rural based – complements fortification and supplementation

Cost effective – research at a central location can be multiplied across countries and time

Sustainable – investments are front loaded with low recurrent costs

A novel strategy for delivering micronutrient on a daily basis


Martha nyagaya

Biofortification: Improves status for those less deficient and maintains status for all

Iron Deficient

Iron Sufficient

Population Distribution

Biofortification and Commercial Fortification

Supplementation

12.0

Hemoglobin


Active development of conventionally bred bio fortified crops

Active development of conventionally bred bio-fortified crops

Zinc

Iron

ProVitamin A


Pabra s focus on beans

PABRA ‘S Focus on Beans

Most important staple food in parts of Eastern Africa and Latin America

High content of iron absorption inhibitors polyphenols and phytic acid

Per capita consumption in Rwanda is about 27 kg/year (200 g/day)‏

Iron absorption around

5-10%

High iron content

(up to 10 mg/100g)

Major protein, and mineral source


Will bio fortification of beans w ork

Will Bio-fortification of beans work?

  • Can breeding increase nutrient levels enough to improve human nutrition?

  • Will the extra nutrients be bio-available at sufficient levels to improve micronutrient status?

  • Will farmers adopt crops and will consumers buy/eat in sufficient quantities?


Activities and targets ciat business plan

Activities and Targets – CIAT Business Plan

  • Produce seed of released bio-fort lines

    • Two micronutrient dense bean varieties disseminated and promoted in two countries in eastern and southern Africa

  • Conduct multi-locational trials to validate levels of iron over sites

    • 20 F3.5 small seeded families with 90% more iron

  • Develop weaning (complementary) foods with bean flour with private sector

    • At least 5 diversified bean based foods addressing micronutrient deficiencies are developed, tested, and evaluated with farmers


Multidisciplinary research teams of partners for delivery of bio fortified beans in pabra

Multidisciplinary research teams of partners for delivery of Bio-fortified beans in PABRA


Research on micronutrient rich beans

Research on Micronutrient Rich Beans

Determine nutrient targets-Iron -Zinc -Other foods consumed

Germplasm screening-Analytical methods for rapid analysis of nutrients

Food science Bioavailability studies*

Biological impact in humans‘Efficacy’

Population impact ‘Effectiveness’

Source: HarvestPlus


Baseline nutrition s urveys burundi drc

Baseline nutrition surveys: Burundi & DRC

  • Feasibility of improving nutrition status of vulnerable communities with improved bean varieties

  • Less than 50% well nourished

  • High prevalence of

  • stunting (57%)

  • High correlation between stunting (H/A) and underweight (W/A)


Incidence and cause of food insecurity

Incidence and cause of food insecurity

Source: CIALCA


Martha nyagaya

Determine Breeding Targets

Bioavailablemicronutrient content ≥ Desired Amount

Target Increment µgg-1 to be added

Non-bioavailable

Bioavailability

Iron: 5 - 10%

Zinc: 25%

Retention - processing losses

Storage losses

Baseline micronutrient level in commercial crop


Targets 3 fold increase in bean iron

Targets: 3 fold increase in bean iron

  • Iron content in bean

    • Baseline = 50 micrograms/gram

    • Target = 94 micrograms/gram

    • Estimated bio-fortification target increment = 44 micrograms/gram

  • Zinc content in bean

    • Baseline = 30 micrograms/gram

    • Target = 47 micrograms/gram

    • Estimated bio-fortification target increment = 17 micrograms/gram

  • Consumption

    • 200 grams/day – women;

    • 100 grams/day – children 4-6 years of age;

    • 50 grams/day - 1-3 year olds

      • Assumed iron retention - 85%

      • Assumed absorption - 5%


Participatory variety selection

Participatory Variety Selection

  • 86% of farmers prioritize agronomic superiority over micronutrient density

  • Data from South Western Uganda

  • N = 1200

    • Agronomic superiority

    • Cooking qualities

    • Marketability

    • Nutrition quality


Bio fortified bean releases

Bio-fortified Bean - Releases


Will intake of additional iron from beans improve micronutrient status

Will intake of additional Iron from beans improve micronutrient status?

High variation in Iron levels


Inhibitors of iron absorption in beans

Inhibitors of iron absorption in beans

Polyphenols

Wide variations depending on bean varieties (color)

Mainly in bean hulls

Phytic acid

Content constantly high 0.7-1.2 g/100 g

Mainly in cotyledons

1000

800

600

mg GAE/100g dm

400

200

0

Libi

Gofta

PVA 8

Zebra

CAB 2

GLP 2

BCR 4

Oba -1

G 2331

Ayenew

Roba 1

CAB 19

Nakaja

GLP 24

ABA 136

MEX 142

RWR 10

GLP X92

GLP 585

AND 620

RWV 528

HRS 545

Decelaya

Maharagi

Selian 97

MCM 2001

Ituri Matata

Umubano

Vuninkingi

Vuninkingi

VNB 81010

VCB 81013

TY 3396-12

MLB 49/89A

CAB 19 (F9)

Mashai Red

Awash Melka

Ranjonomby

Umubano K1

39.33333333

TajeriFoman 2006


Options for increasing adequacy of iron intake

Options for increasing adequacy of iron intake?

Enhancers of absorption

Inhibitors of absorption

Plant ferritin

Phytate

Polyphenols

Inulin?

Carotenoids?


Loss of iron fe and zn in bean after cooking

% loss of iron Fe and Zn in bean after cooking


Effect of cooking on tannins and phytates

Effect of Cooking on Tannins and Phytates


New recipes

New Recipes

6 recipe books developed


Bean product development

Bean Product Development

Development of Bean Based food products that address target nutrient deficiencies in children

Focus – Iron, zinc and protein needs/deficiencies, nutrient density and quality

This products is being tested in Ethiopia for utilization in addressing iron zinc and protein deficiencies in children weaning away from breast feeding


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Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green shelled and dry beans


Martha nyagaya

Comparative evaluation of % in vitro bio-availability of minerals cooked with Magadi soda and/or bean ash

Percentages of respective mineral along rows with same superscripts for magadi and bean-ash samples are not significantly different at P≤0.05


Reduction of cooking time effect of soaking

Reduction of cooking time – effect of soaking


Efficacy

Efficacy

To establish whether there is a physiological adaptation to the inhibitory effect of bean polyphenols during long term consumption of a mixed diet

To compare the biological impact of iron bio-fortified beans on biochemical and functional indicators of iron status


Scaling up dissemination with partnerships for reu at different levels

Scaling up dissemination withpartnerships for REU at different levels


Summary

Summary

  • Breeding progress is good and several bio-fortified bean varieties can be released by 2012

  • Nutritional impact is assessed throughout development – efforts will be intensified will be intensified in the next year

  • Dissemination strategies are considered early on in product development

    • Impact

    • Costs


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