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Rhinology. Nasal dissection and physiology. dissection. 鼻( Nose) External nose Nasal cavity Nasal sinuses. Dissection — external nose. Shape of external nose : pyramid Nasal root Nasal apex Nasal bridge Nasal dorsum Alae nasi Basis nasi —

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Rhinology

Rhinology

Nasal dissection and physiology


Dissection
dissection

鼻(Nose)

  • External nose

  • Nasal cavity

  • Nasal sinuses


Dissection external nose
Dissection—external nose

Shape of external nose:pyramid

  • Nasal root

  • Nasal apex

  • Nasal bridge

  • Nasal dorsum

  • Alae nasi

  • Basis nasi—

    anterior nares,columella nasi,nasolabial fold


Dissection external nose1
Dissection—external nose

nose stretcher:

bone—prefrontal bone

nasal bone

ascending processes

of the maxillae

palatine process

Pyriform aperture


Nose stretcher
nose stretcher

cartilage—lateral nasal cartilage

greater alar cartilage


Dissection external nose2
Dissection—external nose

The venous drainage of the external nose

  • These veins mainly drain to internal carotid vein via angular vein and facial vein,but angular vein communicate to cavernous sinus via the the ophthalmic veins。

  • facial vein ---- no valve。

    danger triangle of face


Dissection nasal cavity
Dissection—nasal cavity

  • Nasal vestibule

  • nasal cavity


Dissection1
Dissection

nasal cavity

nostril、choanae

internal、external、top、bottom


Nasal cavity
Nasal cavity

top:

anterior: prefrontal bone

nasal bone

posterior: anterior wall of

sphenoid sinus

intermediate: cribriform plate

bottom:

1.palatine process of maxilla 2.horizontal process of palate bone


Dissection2
Dissection

medial wall of nasal cavity

  • Nasal septum:cartilage of nasal septum, lamina plate of ethmoid bone and vomer。

  • Nosebleed area:the branches of arteries aggregate in intramembrane of nasal septum ,easy to bleeding ,so named Little area.


Lateral wall of nasal cavity

  • Three turbinates dispose like ladder(superior,

    middle,inferior turbinate)

  • superior,middle,

    inferior meatus


Lateral wall of nasal cavity
Lateral wall of nasal cavity

Inferior turbinate and inferior meatus:

middle turbinate and middle meatus :

Lamella of middle turbinate(devide ethmoid sinus to anterior part and posterior part)

The gap between the nasal septum and free margin of turbinate ,named meatus of nose


Lateral nasal passage
Lateral nasal passage

Frontal sinus drain to anterior superior part of ethmoidal infundibulum via nasofrontal duct , second drainage is anterior part of ethmoid sinus,last open is maxillary sinus.

uncinate process,ethmoid bulla,semilunar hiatus ,ethmoidal infundibulum


Dissection3
Dissection

  • Ostiomeatal complex,OMC: middle turbinate and middle meatus ,and other anatomical structure,anatomy basis of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, FESS .


Dissection4
Dissection

  • artery:

  • external carotid artery——Maxillary Artery——

    Inferior part of nasal cavity

  • internal carotid artery——ophthalmic artery——anterior ethmoid artery/posterior ethmoid artery——superior part of nasal cavity


Dissection sinuses
Dissection—SINUSES

  • Nasal sinuses

    anterior sinuses apertures

    maxillary sinus middle meatus

    anterior ethmoid sinus middle meatus

    frontal sinus middle meatus

    posterior sinuses apertures

    posterior ethmoid sinus superiormeatus

    Sphenoid sinus recessus sphenoethmoidalis


Dissection5
DISSECTION

maxillary sinus

anterior wall—canine fossa

posterior side wall—near internal pterygoid muscle

superior wall—orbital plate

foot wall—alveolar process(odontogenic maxillary sinusitis)

medial wall—hard to drain because of high aperture






Nose skull homologic anatomy
Nose –skull homologic anatomy

  • anterior cranial fossa: hanging wall of nasal cavity midpiece,posterior wall of frontal sinus, hanging wall of ethmoid sinus

  • middle cranial fossa: hanging wall/ lateral wall of sphenoid sinus

    (pituitary gland、cavernous sinus、 internal carotid artery )


Nose oral homologic anatomy
Nose –oral homologic anatomy

  • posterior side wall of maxillary sinus:internal pterygoid muscle

  • Footwall of maxillary sinus:second bicuspid and

    first molar、second molar

  • Foot wall of nasal cavity:pars palatalis


Nasal physiology
Nasalphysiology

  • Nasal cavity physiology

  • respiratory function—laminar flow AND turbulent flow

    —nasal airway resistance AND nasal cycle

  • Protection function—cleaning and filtration,warming and moisturizing

  • olfactory function

  • resonant function


Nasal physiology1
Nasalphysiology

  • Nasal sinuses physiology

    resonant function ,lighten weight and keep head balance