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Rhinology. Nasal dissection and physiology. dissection. 鼻( Nose) External nose Nasal cavity Nasal sinuses. Dissection — external nose. Shape of external nose : pyramid Nasal root Nasal apex Nasal bridge Nasal dorsum Alae nasi Basis nasi —

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Nasal dissection and physiology




  • External nose

  • Nasal cavity

  • Nasal sinuses

Dissection external nose

Dissection—external nose

Shape of external nose:pyramid

  • Nasal root

  • Nasal apex

  • Nasal bridge

  • Nasal dorsum

  • Alae nasi

  • Basis nasi—

    anterior nares,columella nasi,nasolabial fold

Dissection external nose1

Dissection—external nose

nose stretcher:

bone—prefrontal bone

nasal bone

ascending processes

of the maxillae

palatine process

Pyriform aperture

Nose stretcher

nose stretcher :

cartilage—lateral nasal cartilage

greater alar cartilage

Dissection external nose2

Dissection—external nose

The venous drainage of the external nose

  • These veins mainly drain to internal carotid vein via angular vein and facial vein,but angular vein communicate to cavernous sinus via the the ophthalmic veins。

  • facial vein ---- no valve。

    danger triangle of face

Dissection nasal cavity

Dissection—nasal cavity

  • Nasal vestibule

  • nasal cavity



nasal cavity



Nasal cavity

Nasal cavity


anterior: prefrontal bone

nasal bone

posterior: anterior wall of

sphenoid sinus

intermediate: cribriform plate


1.palatine process of maxilla 2.horizontal process of palate bone



medial wall of nasal cavity

  • Nasal septum:cartilage of nasal septum, lamina plate of ethmoid bone and vomer。

  • Nosebleed area:the branches of arteries aggregate in intramembrane of nasal septum ,easy to bleeding ,so named Little area.


Lateral wall of nasal cavity

  • Three turbinates dispose like ladder(superior,

    middle,inferior turbinate)

  • superior,middle,

    inferior meatus

Lateral wall of nasal cavity

Lateral wall of nasal cavity

Inferior turbinate and inferior meatus:

middle turbinate and middle meatus :

Lamella of middle turbinate(devide ethmoid sinus to anterior part and posterior part)

The gap between the nasal septum and free margin of turbinate ,named meatus of nose

Lateral nasal passage

Lateral nasal passage

Frontal sinus drain to anterior superior part of ethmoidal infundibulum via nasofrontal duct , second drainage is anterior part of ethmoid sinus,last open is maxillary sinus.

uncinate process,ethmoid bulla,semilunar hiatus ,ethmoidal infundibulum



  • Ostiomeatal complex,OMC: middle turbinate and middle meatus ,and other anatomical structure,anatomy basis of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, FESS .



  • artery:

  • external carotid artery——Maxillary Artery——

    Inferior part of nasal cavity

  • internal carotid artery——ophthalmic artery——anterior ethmoid artery/posterior ethmoid artery——superior part of nasal cavity

Dissection sinuses


  • Nasal sinuses

    anterior sinuses apertures

    maxillary sinus middle meatus

    anterior ethmoid sinus middle meatus

    frontal sinus middle meatus

    posterior sinuses apertures

    posterior ethmoid sinus superiormeatus

    Sphenoid sinus recessus sphenoethmoidalis



maxillary sinus

anterior wall—canine fossa

posterior side wall—near internal pterygoid muscle

superior wall—orbital plate

foot wall—alveolar process(odontogenic maxillary sinusitis)

medial wall—hard to drain because of high aperture


  • frontal sinus


  • ethmoid sinus


  • sphenoid sinus


  • Nasal cavity and sinuses dissection and examination

Nose skull homologic anatomy

Nose –skull homologic anatomy

  • anterior cranial fossa: hanging wall of nasal cavity midpiece,posterior wall of frontal sinus, hanging wall of ethmoid sinus

  • middle cranial fossa: hanging wall/ lateral wall of sphenoid sinus

    (pituitary gland、cavernous sinus、 internal carotid artery )

Nose oral homologic anatomy

Nose –oral homologic anatomy

  • posterior side wall of maxillary sinus:internal pterygoid muscle

  • Footwall of maxillary sinus:second bicuspid and

    first molar、second molar

  • Foot wall of nasal cavity:pars palatalis

Nasal physiology


  • Nasal cavity physiology

  • respiratory function—laminar flow AND turbulent flow

    —nasal airway resistance AND nasal cycle

  • Protection function—cleaning and filtration,warming and moisturizing

  • olfactory function

  • resonant function

Nasal physiology1


  • Nasal sinuses physiology

    resonant function ,lighten weight and keep head balance



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