Physics of the Atmosphere
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Physics of the Atmosphere Physik der Atmosphäre. SS 2010 Ulrich Platt Institut f. Umweltphysik R. 424 [email protected] Last Week. The planetary boundary layer is the layer where surface friction has an impact ( τ ≠ 0 ). It can be subdivided into different regimes:

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Physics of the atmosphere physik der atmosph re

Physics of the Atmosphere Physik der Atmosphäre

SS 2010

Ulrich Platt

Institut f. Umweltphysik

R. 424

[email protected]


Last week

Last Week

  • The planetary boundary layer is the layer where surface friction has an impact (τ ≠ 0). It can be subdivided into different regimes:

    • Molecular-viscous layer governed by molecular diffusion

    • Prandl- layer, where shear stress is constant with altitude

    • Ekman- layer, where shear stress decreases with altitude (until it is zero in the free atmosphere)

  • Basic assumption: Turbulent diffusion coefficient is proportional to altitude  Logarithmic wind profile

  • Water vapour has an impact on vertical stability not only due to the release of latent heat, but also due to its lower density

  • The transport of scalar tracers in the boundary layer can be parameterised with the transfer resistance R or the piston velocity v12:

  • In the turbulent regime, the transfer resistance is proportional to the logarithmic ratio of the altitude difference

  • Air/sea gas exchange is a very important issue in the chemistry and climate of the atmosphere (how much anthropogenic CO2 is taken up by the oceans?)

  • It can be investigated using wind-wave facilities, such as the Aelotron at the IUP


Contents

Contents


Topics

Topics

  • Temperature and Radiation in the Stratosphere

  • Stratospheric Dynamics

    • Circulation

    • Stratosphere – Troposphere Exchange

  • Water Budget of the Stratosphere

  • S in the Stratosphere: Junge Layer


The structure of the atmosphere

Ionosphäre

Heterosphäre

Thermosphäre

Mesosphäre

Homosphäre

Tropopause

Troposphäre

The Structure of the Atmosphere


The stratosphere

The Stratosphere


Mean latitude distribution of temperature and wind velocity

Mean Latitude Distribution of Temperature and Wind Velocity

White lines: Isolinies of zonal (east-west) wind velocity (m/s)

(Source: NASA)


Mean latitude distribution of actual and potential temperature

Mean Latitude Distribution of Actual and Potential Temperature

Drawn lines: Potential Temperature

Dashed lines: Actual Temperature

Holton et al., 1995


The stratospheric ozone layer

The Stratospheric Ozone Layer


Radiation heating and cooling of the atmosphere

Radiation Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere

local heating rates:

  • stratosphere ~ radiative equilibrium

  • troposphere ≠ radiative equilibrium - “convective adjustment”

Brasseur and Solomon, 2005

(IUP-Book 1968)

Higher atmosphere is (mainly) cooled by LW and heated by SW radiation


Vertical radiation intensity profile in the atmosphere

Vertical Radiation Intensity Profile in the Atmosphere

1) For simplicity we first consider a (hypothetical isobaric atmosphere, i.e. c(z) = c0):

We obtain for I(z):

With:

= Optical Density

c = Trace gas concentration (e.g. particles m-3)

 = Absorption cross section

I0 = Intensity outside the atmosphere

2) In reality, of course we have an exponential decrease:

Thus the Optical Density as function of height z:

and the intensity:

The above equation is also known as Chapman Function.


The chapman function

Altitude/Km

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0,00

0,10

0,20

0,30

0,40

0,50

0,60

0,70

0,80

0,90

1,00

The Chapman Function

From a certain altitude (e.g. for  = 1, red line) we can consider the atmosphere as ‘black’.

Intensity I/I0


Absorption of radiation in the atmosphere

Absorption of Radiation in the Atmosphere


Turbulent diffusion konstant k m cm 2 s 1

Turbulent Diffusion Konstant KM, cm2s-1

Source: Brasseur and Solomon 1986


The brewer dobson circulation i

The Brewer-Dobson Circulation I

  • In 1948: Alan Brewer discovers that stratospheric air above England is a lot drier than expected from local dew point temperature.

  • latitudinal gradient of Θ: no direct advection of tropical air (radiative cooling rates would have to be unreasonably high)

  • Stratosphere is NOT in radiative equilibrium due to BDC:

    • ascending branch: radiative heating

    • sinking branch: radiative cooling

  • Dehydration of air entering the stratosphere: freeze-drying


The brewer dobson circulation ii

The Brewer-Dobson circulation II

Slow circulation from the (cold) equatorial tropopause to higher latitudes provides a supply of dry air to the entire stratosphere

Brewer (1949)


Mean air mass ages at different latitudes and altitudes

Alter in Jahren

Mean Air Mass Ages at different Latitudes and Altitudes

Waugh and Hall 2002


The age of stratospheric air

The „Age“ of stratospheric Air

Air mass age (from CO2) as function of latitude at 20km

And as Fu. of latitude (5oS, 40oN, 65oN) and altitude


Atmospheric motion and mean methane mixing ratio

Atmospheric Motion and Mean Methane Mixing Ratio


Atmospheric motion and mean methane mixing ratio ii

Atmospheric Motion and Mean Methane Mixing Ratio II


Stratosphere troposphere exchange at mid latitudes

Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange at Mid-Latitudes

Holton et al., 1995


Stratosphere troposphere exchange global picture

Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Global Picture

WMO (2003)


Very short lived source gases

WMO (2003)

Very Short Lived Source Gases


Freeze drying the stratosphere

Freeze Drying the Stratosphere

  • most efficient upward transport mechanism: deep convection

  • tropical TP is VERY cold  freeze drying

  • tropical TP temp is lowest in NH winter minimum in specific humidity in tropical lower stratosphere in NH winter


Water in the equatorial stratosphere

Water in the Equatorial Stratosphere


Potential vorticity ertel s vorticity

Potential Vorticity (Ertel’s Vorticity)

  • In absence of friction and diabatic processes (radiation, latent heat, ..) PV is conserved:

  • measure of vertical stability and circulation

  • measure of ratio of absolute vorticity to effective depth of vortex

  • dynamical tracer of horizontal motion

  • large gradient of PV across the tropopause

  • 1 PVU = 10-6 m2 s-1 K kg-1


Adiabatic flow over mountain range

Adiabatic flow over mountain range

stretching of Θ0+dΘ layer

initial lifting of Θ0+dΘ layer

Holton (1992)

horizontal spread of vertical displacement at top of column

development of lee-wave due to changes in f

uniform zonal flow


Tropopause definitions

Tropopause Definitions

  • Focus on increase in stability

  • Θ/PV:

    • tropical TP: Θ=380K

    • extratropics: 2 PVU

  • WMO:

    • lowest level at which dT/dz ≤ 2 K km-1

    • and: dT/dz ≤ 2 K km-1 in “surrounding” 2km

  • Ozone:

    • altitude with first occurrence of [O3] > 0.1 ppm


Stratosphere troposphere exchange

Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

  • Tropics:

    • deep, overshooting convection

  • Extratropics:

    • tropopause folds in jet stream regions

    • cut-off lows

    • isentropic exchange in lower-most stratosphere

  • STE in models: hard problem, vertical resolution near TP has to be fairly high

Shapiro (1980) in Holton et al (1995)


Physics of the atmosphere physik der atmosph re

Feb 29, 1800 UTC

Feb 27, 1800 UTC

Owen R. Cooper


Pv contours

PV Contours

Owen R. Cooper


Source for stratospheric nox

Source for Stratospheric NOx

N2O + O(1D) 2 NO (58%)

 N2 + O2 (42%)

N2O + hν  N2 + O(1D)

Brasseur et al., 1999


Sulfur in the stratosphere

Sulfur in the Stratosphere

  • Sources:

    • volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosols

    • OCS

  • OCS chemistry:

    (1)OCS + hv S + CO

    S + O2 SO + O

    (2) OCS + O SO + CO

    SO + O2 SO2 + O

    SO + NO2 SO2 + NO

  • Formation of sulfate aerosols: Junge layer, condensation nuclei for PSC (discovered by Junge, 1961)

  • Important for radiation balance and ozone chemistry


Pinatubo i

Pinatubo I

before

after

Photo: NASA


Pinatubo ii

Pinatubo II

WMO (2003)

NASA


Pinatubo iii

Pinatubo III

 Temperature increase in the stratosphere

WMO (2003)


The global sulfur cycle

The Global sulfur cycle

Brasseur et al., 1999


Global atmospheric chlorine cycle

Global Atmospheric Chlorine Cycle

Graedel and Crutzen [1993]


Summary

Summary

  • The stratospheric temperature is determined by radiation balance

  • Exchange between Strat. And Trop. Is determined by the Brewer-Dobson circulation and transport along isentropes

  • The Brewer-Dobson circulation also determines the stratospheric water budget in first approximation (polar stratospheric cold trap)

  • S in the Stratosphere: Junge Layer


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