Storage of semantic information l.jpg
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 11

Storage of Semantic Information PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 47 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Storage of Semantic Information. Storage of Episodic Information. Schema Theory (Shank, 1975) - embodies Bartlett’s (1932) notion of effort after meaning and emphasises the role of past experience and expectation. Connectionist approach (Collins & Quillian, 1969)

Download Presentation

Storage of Semantic Information

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Storage of Semantic Information

Storage of Episodic Information

  • Schema Theory (Shank, 1975)

  • - embodies Bartlett’s (1932) notion of effort after meaning and emphasises the role of past experience and expectation.

  • Connectionist approach (Collins & Quillian, 1969)

  • operational version of Bower’s (1967) Multiple Trace Theory emphasising a network of associations

examples


Schema Theory What is a Schema?

“A mental model or representation built up through experience about a person, an object, a situation, or an event.” (Head, 1920)

“Organised structures that capture knowledge and expectations of some aspect of the world.” (Bartlett, 1932)


Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


The Structure of Schemata

  • Core Variables

  • - Things that define the event

  • Other Variables

  • - Things that can vary from one experience of the event to another

  • Sequence and Slots

  • Default Variables

  • - Based on prior experience and expectations.

stories


The Importance of Schema-Activation

Bransford & Johnson (1972) Expt 2: Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 717-726.

stories


Advantages of the Schema

  • Guides attention, selection, encoding and retrieval of information

  • Helps integrate current information with past information

  • Helps interpret and understand event through insertion of default variables

  • Helps retrieval by recall being schema-driven.

errors


Limitations of the Schema Model

  • Definition of Schema

    • How can a schema be defined without circularity of argument?

  • Schema Selection and Retrieval

  • -How is the most appropriate schema selected and retrieved? Have we not merely re-stated the question of how LTM is organised and recalled?

  • Contrary Evidence

  • - How can we explain the instances of vivid recall of schema- inconsistent details or events?


  • Login