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Storage of Semantic Information. Storage of Episodic Information. Schema Theory (Shank, 1975) - embodies Bartlett’s (1932) notion of effort after meaning and emphasises the role of past experience and expectation. Connectionist approach (Collins & Quillian, 1969)

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Storage of Semantic Information

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Storage of semantic information l.jpg

Storage of Semantic Information

Storage of Episodic Information

  • Schema Theory (Shank, 1975)

  • - embodies Bartlett’s (1932) notion of effort after meaning and emphasises the role of past experience and expectation.

  • Connectionist approach (Collins & Quillian, 1969)

  • operational version of Bower’s (1967) Multiple Trace Theory emphasising a network of associations

examples


Schema theory what is a schema l.jpg

Schema Theory What is a Schema?

“A mental model or representation built up through experience about a person, an object, a situation, or an event.” (Head, 1920)

“Organised structures that capture knowledge and expectations of some aspect of the world.” (Bartlett, 1932)


Excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 1932 l.jpg

Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19324 l.jpg

Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19325 l.jpg

Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19326 l.jpg

Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


Excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19327 l.jpg

Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)

  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.

  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.

  • Many of our fellows were killed,

  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.

  • And they said I was hit

  • And I did not feel sick.”

  • He told it all,

  • And they be became quiet.

  • When the sun rose, he fell down.

  • Something black came out of his mouth.

  • His face became contorted.

  • The people jumped up and cried.

  • He was dead.


The structure of schemata l.jpg

The Structure of Schemata

  • Core Variables

  • - Things that define the event

  • Other Variables

  • - Things that can vary from one experience of the event to another

  • Sequence and Slots

  • Default Variables

  • - Based on prior experience and expectations.

stories


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The Importance of Schema-Activation

Bransford & Johnson (1972) Expt 2: Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 717-726.

stories


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Advantages of the Schema

  • Guides attention, selection, encoding and retrieval of information

  • Helps integrate current information with past information

  • Helps interpret and understand event through insertion of default variables

  • Helps retrieval by recall being schema-driven.

errors


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Limitations of the Schema Model

  • Definition of Schema

    • How can a schema be defined without circularity of argument?

  • Schema Selection and Retrieval

  • -How is the most appropriate schema selected and retrieved? Have we not merely re-stated the question of how LTM is organised and recalled?

  • Contrary Evidence

  • - How can we explain the instances of vivid recall of schema- inconsistent details or events?


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