Judaism by adina ember
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 38

Judaism – By Adina Ember PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 201 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Judaism – By Adina Ember. Types of Judaism. Conservative Judaism: Keep mosaic laws Allow adaption of other requirements to fit circumstances Liberal Judaism: Progressive form of Judaism Brings Judaism to modernity Orthodox Judaism:

Download Presentation

Judaism – By Adina Ember

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Judaism by adina ember

Judaism – By Adina Ember


Types of judaism

Types of Judaism

  • Conservative Judaism:

  • Keep mosaic laws

  • Allow adaption of other requirements to fit circumstances

  • Liberal Judaism:

  • Progressive form of Judaism

  • Brings Judaism to modernity

  • Orthodox Judaism:

  • Strictly observe mosaic laws (interpreted in the Talmud)

  • Reform Judaism:

  • Mostly liberal Jew

  • Does not follow the Talmud strictly

  • Adapts all historical forms of Judaism (to modern world)


Types of judaism1

Types of Judaism

  • Humanistic Judaism:

  • Movement that emphasizes Jewish culture & history(not really belief in god)

  • Source of Jewish identity

  • Rituals and ceremonies don’t include prayer

  • Modern Orthodox Judaism:

  • Movement within Orthodox Judaism

  • Attempts to synthesizes Jewish values

  • Observes Jewish law (with modern world)

  • Reconstructionist Judaism:

  • Modern America0based movement

  • Based on ideas of Mordecai Kaplan (1881-1983)

  • Views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization

  • Originated as a branch of Conservative Judaism before separating


Background

Background

  • Originated in the Middle East (3500 years ago)

  • Founded by Moses

  • Jew trace their history all the way back to Abraham

  • Jew believe they have a convent (binding agreement) with god

  • Jews keep gods laws and try to bring holiness in everything they do in change for all the god has done for them

  • Their religious book is the Torah

  • The interpretation of the Torah’s laws is called halakhah

  • Rabbis is their spiritual leader

  • Worship in synagogues

  • Fact: In the Holocaust, 6 million Jews were murdered to rude of Judaism


Jewish faith and god

Jewish faith and god

Believe:

  • There's only one god who they have an individual relationship with.

  • Believe that god chose them to be this chosen people

  • Appointed by God to set an example for others

  • They consider themselves a family because when reading the Jewish prayer book, they us WE and OUR in prayers.


Who is a jew

Who is a Jew?

  • Someone who is born from a Jewish mother ( if they convert to Judaism which is hard to do so, they are not viewed as a Jew).

  • Majority of the things a Jew person does is an act of worship

  • Made bargain with god therefore they must do things the way god pleases


View of god

View of God

  • God exists

  • There is only one god (there is no other god other then him).

  • Jewish people worship only one god

  • God is everywhere all at the same time

  • He above and beyond EVERYTHING

  • God does not have a gender (neither female nor male)

  • God created the universe

  • God punishes the bad and rewards the god

  • He is merciful but also just

  • He is forgiving to those who make mistakes

  • God is interested, listens, and sometimes speaks to every individual

  • God does exist and always will


Beliefs day to day

Beliefs – Day to day


Sabbath

Sabbath

  • Sabbath also known in Hebrew as Shabbat (comes From the Hebrew word rest)

  • Commanded by god

  • Jews observe the Sabbath and have to keep it holy

  • Starts a few minutes before sunset on Friday until an hour after sunset on Saturday (25 hours long)

  • It originates from the story of creation: God made the world in 7 days and on the 7th day he rested

  • Therefore Jews rest and no don’t carry, push or pull anything on the 7th day of the week

  • Also the 4th commandments says that you must observe and keep the Sabbath day holy


Continued

Continued

  • This day is a deal between Jews and God

  • It’s a reminder of the convent (a binding agreement) to keep his laws and bring holiness to every aspect of their life

  • A traditional greeting used on this day is Shabbat Shalom (Hebrew) and Gut Shabbos (Yiddish)

    Customs:

  • Avoid work so shopping, cleaning, and cooking for the Sabbath is done the day before

  • The ritual of lighting the candles is done by the women of the house

  • This marks the beginning of the Sabbath

  • The candles represent the 2 commandments:

  • Zachor (to remember the Sabbath)

  • Shamor (to observe the Sabbath)


Judaism by adina ember

…………..

  • Jewish families drink sweet wine from a special goblet called a Kiddush cup

  • Drinking this wine symbolizes joy and celebration

  • They eat Challah (soft rich eggy bread in the shape of a braid)

  • Every Jew must eat 3 meals every Sabbath (bread must be included in one of the meals)

  • A prayer is said before eating the challah

  • The prayer:

  • Baruch atahAdonai, Eloheinuha’olam, hamotzilechem min ha’aretz

  • This means:

  • Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who brings forth the bread from the earth


Judaism by adina ember

Eruv

  • This is an enclosed area

  • Its not closed by walls built specifically for it but by railroads or wall of houses

  • This area is used to allow Jews to performs the tasks they are able to do in their home but outside their home

  • Jews are not allowed to carry, push or pull anything but only in their homes

  • In North West London an eruv was “made” and was validated by the London Beth din which is the orthodox Jewish court

  • Jews can carry house keys, handkerchiefs, food or drinks, prayer shawls, book, extra clothing, nappies, glasses, wheelchairs, and walking frame (crutches).

  • Things like shopping, swimming, riding bikes, and playing games etc. are not permitted


Tefillin

Tefillin

  • Also known as phylacteries

  • Cubic black leather boxes with leather straps that Jewish men wear on their head and arm

  • Jewish men wear these things during the weekday morning prayer

  • They wear tefillins because it is considered a great Mitzvah (command)

  • The box contains 4 hand-written texts from the bible

  • The texts are from Exodus 10:1-10, 13:11-16, and Deuteronomy 6:4-9, 11:12-21

  • The hand tefillin have 4 texts on single parchments strips

  • The head tefillin have 4 separated compartments with single texts in them

  • Jewish men start wearing the tefillin right before their Bar Mitzvah (around 8 years old)


Making of the tefillin

Making of the tefillin

  • A certified specialist approved bit the rabbi make the tefillin

  • Everything has to be perfect

  • There are 3188 letters in the parchments

  • Takes the scribe about 15 hours to write it all

  • The scribes have to purify themselves before making the tefillin at a mikvah (ritual bath)

  • The box and straps have to be completely black, and square

  • The stiches must e perfect and the threat and leather must be acceptable


Wearing the tefillin

Wearing the Tefillin

  • The arm tefillin is put on first (upper part of weaker arm)

  • A blessing is recited while the straps are wrapped around the arm 7 times

  • Blessing:

  • Blessed are You, Lord our God, Kind of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to put on Tefillin

  • The head tefillin is loosely fastened half a centimeter above the person original hairline

  • A blessing is recited and the straps are tightened (knot at the back of the head)

  • Strap of the hand is now wounded 3 times around the middle finger wile reciting Hosea, chapter 2


Kippah yarmulke

Kippah/Yarmulke

  • Men wear the Kippah

  • Wear skullcap on Jewish men’s head

  • Skullcap in Hebrew is known as Kippah and in Yiddish is known as Yarmulke

  • Jew men wear the kippah to cover their head when attending the synagogue or religious events

  • Wearing Kippahs is a sign of devotion

  • It is a sign of respect and fear of god to wear a Kippah

  • Wearing it separates God and humans and recognizes that God is above all mankind

  • History:

  • Here is a disagreement over if it is a Torah agreement to cover your head

  • Evidence in the Talmud (Jewish teaching) that some form of head covering is required


History behind judaism

History behind Judaism

The old testament:

  • Jews are first mentioned in the bible

  • The bible is split between the old testament and the new testament but this topic is in the OLD TESTAMENT

  • God chose the Jews to be an example to the world

  • It describes how god and Jews (chosen people) worked out their relationship

  • In the old testament is shown how god changes and develops alongside his people


History behind judaism1

History behind Judaism

The Bronze Age:

  • This is the beginning of Jewish history and is located in the Middle East

  • God guides the chosen people through trouble and this leads to the ten commandments given by Moses

  • The commandments are a set of rules which Jews must live by


History behind judaism2

History behind Judaism

The kingdom declines:

  • Around 920 BCE, Jewish people split into groups

  • This was the time of the prophets

  • Around 600 BCE the temple was destroyed

  • Jewish leadership was killed

  • Jews were sent to exile in Babylon

  • Soon after they were allowed to return home but man people stayed in exile

  • This is the beginning of the tradition of Diaspora (living away from Israel)


History behind judaism3

History behind Judaism

Rebuilding a Jewish kingdom:

  • Jews grew strong in the next 300 years BCE

  • Their land is ruled by foreign rulers

  • Practice their faith freely

  • Jews were led by scribes and teachers who explained and interpreted the Bible


History behind judaism4

History behind Judaism

Roman times – Zionism:

  • Jesus came as the messiah but Jews didn’t believe he was the messiah but just a prophet

  • During the 150 years CE (Current Era), the Jew rebelled against the Roman leaders leading to a stern restriction Jewish freedom

  • A few revolts occurred and one of them causing the temple of God to be destroyed

  • Starting in 1200 – 1500 Jews were expelled from:

  • England

  • France

  • Spain

  • Portugal

  • Germany


History behind judaism5

History behind Judaism

Holocaust:

  • 1930-1940 the holocaust dominated Jewish history

  • A plan was created by the Nazi government of Germany and their allies

  • The plan was too wipe out the whole Jewish population in Europe

  • 6 million people were murdered and 1 million of them being children

  • the tragedy affected the religious thinking of Jews

  • Jews try to make sense of a God who allowed this horrible thing to happen to his chosen people


Celebration rosh hashanah yom kippur

Celebration – Rosh Hashanah & Yom Kippur

Rosh Hashanah:

  • Jewish New Year

  • Believed that God decides what happens to them in the coming year

  • There is a synagogue service held to worship God and where a shofar (ram’s horn trumpet) is blown

  • The beginning 10 days of this festival is called the Days of Awe

  • Everyone is expected to ask the people they hurt the pervious year to forgive them

    Yom Kippur

  • Jews have until this day to ask for forgiveness

  • This day is always known as the day of Atonement

  • It is believed that this is when god writes in his book of life who lives, dies, prospers, or fails in the upcoming year

  • Worship consists of asking for forgiveness done by the whole congregation


Festivals sukkot

Festivals - Sukkot

  • Also known as the feat of Tabernacles

  • This event commemorates over the years that Israelites wandered the desert to the promise land (in the book Exodus)

  • Jews live in temporary huts (sukkot) built out of branches and leaves

  • Hold celebrations every day with 4 types of plants: palm branches, myrtle and willow, and citrus fruit (etrog).

  • This festival allows Jews to live closer to nature and know that god is taking care of them


Festivals shemini atzeret and simchat

Festivals – Shemini Atzeret and Simchat

  • Extra day after the end of Sukkot

  • Simchat Torah means “rejoicing to the Torah”

  • Synagogues read form Torah every week ( complete one read-through every year)

  • This holiday marks the end of the cycle and the beginning of Genesis


Festivals hanukkah chanukah

Festivals – Hanukkah/CHanukah

  • Also known as the “miracle of the oil”

  • 164 BC, group of Jews called the Maccabees recaptured Jerusalem from occupying Syrian Greeks

  • When rededicating the temple, they only had enough sacred oil to light the menorah (seven0branched candlestick) for one day

  • Candles stayed lit for 8 days

  • Hanukkah last for 8 days and one extra candle is lit on the nine-branched menorah (chanukkiya) each night

  • On this day Jews eat dried foods and pray to remind them of the oil


Festivals tu b shevat

Festivals – TuB’Shevat

  • Jewish new year for trees

  • Torah forbids jaws from eating from the true until the 4th year

  • On the 4th year it is brought to the temple

  • It is counted as he birthday of the tree (tithing purposes)

  • Often eat fruits connected to the holy lands

  • The 7 plants mentioned in Torah: wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates


Festivals purim

Festivals - Purim

  • Told in the book of Ester

  • A wicked man named Haman created a plan to murder all jews

  • Ester fasted before going to the her husband, the king, to ask to prevent the massacre and execute Haman

  • The only thing is that no one is allowed to come to the kind without being asked for and Ester was not asked for therefore she was putting her life in danger

  • This festivals is proceeded as a fast

  • Jews are commanded to eat, drink, and celebrate because their lives were spared


Festivals passover pesach

Festivals – Passover/Pesach

  • Most important Jewish festival

  • Jews remember the time when god free the them from slavery in Egypt

  • God unleashed 10 plagues on the Egyptians (killing the eldest son of every family)

  • To escape this fate, gold told the Israelites to sacrifice a lamb and take the blood from it and smear it on their front door so when the angel of death comes, it will spare their family

  • They ate the lambs with bitter herbs and unrisen bread (without yeast)

  • Form 3 components of family meal, called Seder (eaten on the first 2 nights of Passover)

  • Blessings, songs, and other ingredients come from this story and when Jewish families have the meal they explain the symbolism behind it


Festivals shavuot

Festivals - Shavuot

  • Festival of weeks

  • Harvest festival

  • this is when the first fruits of the harvest are brought the temple

  • This marks the time when the Jews received the Torah on mount Sinai

  • They give thanks for this book, therefore the day consists of prayer and eating fruit

  • The synagogues are decorated with flowers


Festivals tisha b av

Festivals – TishaB’Av

  • Commemoration of series of tragedies

  • Some tragedies Jews commemorate is the Holocaust, World War I, and the first and second temples of Jerusalem being destroyed.

  • Day of mourning

  • Jews observe strict fasting

  • Jews avoid laughing, joking, and chatting on this day

  • Synagogues are dimly lit

  • Synagogues are undecorated

  • The Torah is draped in a black cloth


Weddings

Weddings

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6TwhlAWYIE


Weddings1

Weddings

Wedding rites

  • Most common that marriage was arrangedby parentswith a help f a match maker known as a Yenta

  • Even if a union is made the man still needs to ask the father of the bride for her hand in marriage.

  • A dowry is paid to secure the marriage

  • Ritual begins when the couple is engaged(ceremony known as tena’im)

  • A plate is broken to symbolize the destruction of Jerusalem's temples

  • This is done to remind that the Jews that although this is a happy time, there should still be sadness involved for their loss

  • It is repeated in the wedding the ceremony (breaking of the glass)


Weddings2

Weddings

Before the wedding (announcement):

  • A special ceremony arranged for groom a week before wedding known as Ufruf

  • Groom goes to the synagogue, actively participating in service and announcing the wedding to congregation

  • During this ceremony the groom is usually showered with sweets

  • Occasionally after this ceremony refreshments are had

  • A bride will go to mikveh (ritual bath) a week before wedding

  • This is done so cleanses herself spiritually and enter marriage in a clean slate

  • To properly cleanse oneself as a bride, you must remove all jewelry and nail polish

  • You must immerse yourself in water while reciting a special prayer (supervised to make sure it is done right)

  • Traditional for bride and groom to not see each other all week (less common now a days)


Weddings3

Weddings

Continued:

  • Traditionally married under a canopy (chupa)

  • Chupa symbolizes the home the couple will share

  • A ceremony can take place outside but is most commonly held in synagogues

  • As long as the chupa is present, it doesn’t matter where the ceremony is held


Weddings4

Weddings

The wedding day:

  • Bride and groom fast on the day of wedding

  • Fasting is a way to cleanse themselves of their sins and start fresh

  • Ceremony is under the supervision of a rabbi (one has to be represent)

  • Most couples have a rabbi conduct the ceremony but they can get someone else to do it (with permission from rabbi)

  • Ceremony begins with a signing of a Ketubah (Jewish marriage contract)

  • This signing that sets the legal terms of marriage is done in front of 4 witnesses and the officiator of the service

  • During the Ketubah, men will sign an agreement that says that they will not allow a Get (Jewish divorce) if the couple separates (they can never remarry)

  • Bedecken (veiling) is the ceremony when the bride-groom puts the brides veil down over her face to show that he will clothe and protect her (comes from the bible story when Rebekah covered her face before marrying Abraham’s son, Isaac.


Weddings5

Weddings

Continued

  • There isn't a formal rule about who gets to escort the bride but traditionally the father does but both parents can

  • The bride is last to enter

  • Before reaching the Chupa, the bride walks around bride 7 times which comes from the bible story of creation – god created the world in 7 days ( symbolically creating the couples walls of their home)

  • Ceremony ends with the breaking of a glass (linked to the destruction of the temples)

  • “Man men joke that the breaking of the glass also symbolizes the last time a newly married man will ever be able to put his foot down!”


Weddings6

Weddings

After Wedding:

  • Newly weds spend sometime alone in a special room

  • After their time alone, they greet the guests

  • Jews like to filmand photograph wedding

    The reception:

  • Some weddings take place in synagogues but the receptions doesn’t have to take place there too

  • Reception can take place in a hall or hotel (depends on budget, needs of couples, and guest number)


  • Login