Imagining Native Americans at the End of the Nineteenth Century

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. What are the cultural consequences of frontier settlement? for Native American culture for white American culture. White settlement on Great Plains escalates in 1870s and 80s 1870s: Decade of violent conflict violent efforts to disperse the Plains Indians and lay claim to their land and reso

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Imagining Native Americans at the End of the Nineteenth Century

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1. Imagining Native Americans at the End of the Nineteenth Century Race as a shaping factor in late-nineteenth-century American culture contributions of Native Americans to Euro-American culture dominant American culture’s preoccupation with whiteness

2. What are the cultural consequences of frontier settlement? for Native American culture for white American culture

3. White settlement on Great Plains escalates in 1870s and 80s 1870s: Decade of violent conflict violent efforts to disperse the Plains Indians and lay claim to their land and resources whites systematically destroyed the buffalo to deprive Native American communities of a vital resource U.S. soldiers suppressed massive Sioux rebellion in 1876, and murdered its leader, Crazy Horse, a year later These things paved the way for white settlementThese things paved the way for white settlement

5. During 1880s and 90s, U.S. government continues to suppress Native American cultures U.S. army patrols stamp out pockets of resistance Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 American popular culture distorts Native American lifestyle By 1890, the Indian is a “vanishing American”

6. Impact of Frontier Settlement on Native American Cultures Zitkala-Sa, the Sioux Indians, and the Carlisle Indian Industrial School

7. Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin), 1876-1938 Born on Yankton Sioux Reservation Lived traditional life until age 8 Attended Quaker Mission School in Wabash, Indiana Studied at Earlham College and New England Conservatory of Music Taught at Carlisle Indian Industrial School in 1897 Moved to Boston and began publishing short stories and autobiographical vignettes Autobiography serialized in Atlantic Monthly, Jan.-March 1900

10. How do the passages above relate to Zitkala-Sa’s autobiographical narrative? Do you see any connections to W.E.B. Du Bois’s concept of double consciousness?

11. Zitkala-Sa Passages What kind of imagery does Zitkala-Sa use to depict her Indian girlhood? What kind of imagery does she use to depict her experiences among whites? How might we compare her account to those that we considered on Monday?

12. I sat perfectly still, with my eyes downcast, daring only now and then to shoot long glances around me. Chancing to turn to the window at my side, I was quite breathless upon seeing one familiar object. It was the telegraph pole which strode by at short paces. Very near my mother's dwelling, along the edge of a road thickly bordered with wild sunflowers, some poles like these had been planted by white men. Often I had stopped, on my way down the road, to hold my ear against the pole, and, hearing its low moaning, I used to wonder what the paleface had done to hurt it. Now I sat watching for each pole that glided by to be the last one. (48-49)

13. A loud-clamoring bell awakened us at half-past six in the cold winter mornings. From happy dreams of Western rolling lands and unlassoed freedom we tumbled out upon chilly bare floors back again into a paleface day. We had short time to jump into our shoes and clothes, and wet our eyes with icy water, before a small hand bell was rung vigorously for roll call. (65)

14. It was next to impossible to leave the iron routine after the civilizing machine had once begun its day's buzzing; and as it was inbred in me to suffer in silence rather than to appeal to the ears of one whose open eyes could not see my pain, I have many times trudged in the day's harness heavy-footed, like a dumb sick brute. (66)

15. The melancholy of those black days has left so long a shadow that it darkens the path of years that have since gone by. These sad memories rise above those of smoothly grinding school days. Perhaps my indian nature is the moaning wind which stirs them now for their present record. But, however tempestuous this is within me, it comes out as the low voice of a curiously colored seashell, which is only for those ears that are bent with compassion to hear it. (67-68)

16. For the white man's papers I had given up my faith in the Great Spirit. For these same papers I had forgotten the healing in trees and brooks. On account of my mother's simple view of life, and my lack of any, I gave her up, also. I made no friends among the race of people I loved. Like a slender tree, I had been uprooted from my mother, nature, and God. I was shorn of my branches, which had waved in sympathy and love for home and friends. The natural coat of bark which had protected my oversensitive nature was scraped off to the very quick. Now a cold, bare pole I seemed to be, planted in a strange earth. Still, I seemed to hope a day would come when my mute aching head, reared upward to the sky, would flash a zig-zag lightning across the heavens. With this dream of vent for a long-pent consciousness, I walked again amid the crowds. (97)

17. White Culture and Representations of Native American Tribes

18. Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” presented at Chicago World’s Fair, 1893 “The Western wilds, from the Alleghenies to the Pacific, constituted the richest gift ever spread out before civilized man.” America derived all that was distinctive in its brief history from frontier encounter with wilderness and “wild” Indian inhabitants its democratic institutions, national unity, and tradition of rugged independence

19. Context for Turner’s address: urbanization and industrialization 1890 census disclosed that the distinct “frontier line” no longer existed If the frontier had provided the defining experiences of Americans, how would the values learned in that experience fare in the new world of cities? Would America fashioned on the frontier survive the cauldrons of the city?

21. Edward Curtis 1868-1952 Photographer of the West and of Native Americans Most famous work: The North American Indian

22. Curtis’s photography of Native Americans took over 40,000 images from over 80 tribes presented his subjects in a traditional way supplied proper clothing when his subjects had none photographed reenactments of battles, moving camp, ceremonies and other past Native American activities

23. Also documented: Indian language and music (made 10,000 wax cylinder recordings) tribal mythologies and history tribal population, traditional foods, dwellings, clothing, games, ceremonies, burial customs, biographical sketches and other information

24. Curtis received backing of J.P. Morgan to publish 20-volume photographic collection on Native American tribes in 1906 "The information that is to be gathered ... respecting the mode of life of one of the great races of mankind, must be collected at once or the opportunity will be lost." Curtis, The North American Indian, v. 1 (1907) 20th volume finally completed in 1930 Less than 300 sets of The North American Indian were sold.

25. Description by Edward S. Curtis: The thought which this picture is meant to convey is that the Indians as a race, already shorn in their tribal strength and stripped of their primitive dress, are passing into the darkness of an unknown future. Feeling that the picture expresses so much of the thought that inspired the entire work, the author has chosen it as the first of the series. Description by Edward S. Curtis: The thought which this picture is meant to convey is that the Indians as a race, already shorn in their tribal strength and stripped of their primitive dress, are passing into the darkness of an unknown future. Feeling that the picture expresses so much of the thought that inspired the entire work, the author has chosen it as the first of the series. Description by Edward S. Curtis: The thought which this picture is meant to convey is that the Indians as a race, already shorn in their tribal strength and stripped of their primitive dress, are passing into the darkness of an unknown future. Feeling that the picture expresses so much of the thought that inspired the entire work, the author has chosen it as the first of the series. Description by Edward S. Curtis: The thought which this picture is meant to convey is that the Indians as a race, already shorn in their tribal strength and stripped of their primitive dress, are passing into the darkness of an unknown future. Feeling that the picture expresses so much of the thought that inspired the entire work, the author has chosen it as the first of the series.

26. Crying to the Spirits, 1908

27. Edward Curtis, Oasis on the Badlands, 1905 This picture was made in the heart of the Bad Lands of South Dakota. The subject is the sub-chief Red Hawk, a sketch of whose life is given on page 188 of Volume III. This picture was made in the heart of the Bad Lands of South Dakota. The subject is the sub-chief Red Hawk, a sketch of whose life is given on page 188 of Volume III.

28. The Three Chiefs Description by Edward S. Curtis: Three proud old leaders of their people. A picture of the primal upland prairies with their waving grass and limpid streams. A glimpse of the life and conditions which are on the verge of extinction. Description by Edward S. Curtis: Three proud old leaders of their people. A picture of the primal upland prairies with their waving grass and limpid streams. A glimpse of the life and conditions which are on the verge of extinction.

29. On the Warpath, 1908 Description by Edward S. Curtis: These grim-visaged old warriors made a thrilling picture as they rode along, breaking out now and then into a wild song of the chase or the raid. Description by Edward S. Curtis: These grim-visaged old warriors made a thrilling picture as they rode along, breaking out now and then into a wild song of the chase or the raid.

30. Watching for the Signal Description by Edward S. Curtis: When there were indications that the war-party was near the enemy, a halt was made while the scouts reconnoitered the position of the hostile party. Their appearance on a distant hilltop was awaited by the main body with great anxiety, for if they were seen running in zigzag lines it meant that the enemy had been actually discovered. Description by Edward S. Curtis: When there were indications that the war-party was near the enemy, a halt was made while the scouts reconnoitered the position of the hostile party. Their appearance on a distant hilltop was awaited by the main body with great anxiety, for if they were seen running in zigzag lines it meant that the enemy had been actually discovered.

31. A Son of the Desert Description by Edward S. Curtis: In the early morning this boy, as if springing from the earth itself, came to the author's desert camp. Indeed, he seemed a part of the very desert. His eyes bespeak all of the curiosity, all of the wonder of his primitive mind striving to grasp the meaning of the strange things about him. Description by Edward S. Curtis: In the early morning this boy, as if springing from the earth itself, came to the author's desert camp. Indeed, he seemed a part of the very desert. His eyes bespeak all of the curiosity, all of the wonder of his primitive mind striving to grasp the meaning of the strange things about him.

32. Mosa-Mohave Description by Edward S. Curtis: It would be difficult to conceive of a more aboriginal than this Mohave girl. Her eyes are those of the fawn of the forest, questioning the strange things of civilization upon which it gazes for the first time. She is such a type as Father Garces may have viewed on his journey through the Mohave country in 1776. Description by Edward S. Curtis: It would be difficult to conceive of a more aboriginal than this Mohave girl. Her eyes are those of the fawn of the forest, questioning the strange things of civilization upon which it gazes for the first time. She is such a type as Father Garces may have viewed on his journey through the Mohave country in 1776.

33. In The Badlands, 1904 Description by Edward S. Curtis: This striking picture was made at Sheep Mountain in the Bad Lands of Pine Ridge reservation, South Dakota. Description by Edward S. Curtis: This striking picture was made at Sheep Mountain in the Bad Lands of Pine Ridge reservation, South Dakota.

34. In the Shadow of the Cliff

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