Engineering  Management

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Engineering Management

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1. 1 Engineering Management Assistant Prof. Dr. Korb Srinavin

2. 2 Outline ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????

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4. 4 ????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????

5. 5 ?????????????? (Productivity Improvement) Productivity is the effectiveness with which construction inputs (management, manpower, materials, money, machine and working space) are utilized in support of construction activities to produce facilities (buildings, structures, etc.). Inputs -> [Process] -> Outputs It is therefore, Productivity = [Outputs] / [Inputs] It can be measured (assessed) in two (2) levels: 1. Total factor productivity such as productivity of all construction resources, 2. Partial or single factor productivity such as productivity of labour which is mainly concentrated.

6. 6 Work study Work study is a series techniques which can be used for the systematic examination and investigation of every aspect of human work and the factors that affect efficiency and economy in order to bring about improvement. There are two (2) techniques used in work study which are method study and work measurement.

7. 7 Method study According to the sientific manager theory (Taylor), this is a systematic approach to improve the methods of production as summarized below. 1. Improve use of materials, equipment and manpower. 2. Improve processes and procedures. 3. Improve workplace layout. 4. Improve the design of tools and equipment. 5. Reduce unnecessary work. 6. Develop a better working environment.

8. 8 Conditions suggesting need for method study shall be as follows: 1. Use of excessive labour overtime, 2. Bottlenecks in flow of materials, 3. High materials wastage, 4. Frequent plant breakdown, 5. Fatiquing work, 6. Late programme, 7. Poor quality and workmanship, 8. Delays to and by sub-contractors, 9. Excessive errors and mistakes, 10. Shortages of resources, 11. Insufficient information, 12. Site congestion, 13. Bad working conditions, 14. Cost overruns, 15. High labour turnover, 16. Poor design of temporary works, 17. Poor site layout.

9. 9 Procedure to accomplish method study, called "SREDIM" shall be as follow: 1. Select : the job or operation that needs improvement, 2. Record : all facts, how work is done by chart methods, 3. Examine : every aspect of the job by asking; what, why, where, when, who and how 4. Develop : review ideas, : eliminate, simplify, combine, re-arrange, : make new method which more safe, : chart new method, : submit for approval, 5. Install : the new method, : consider best time to introduce, : convince all, : train users, 6. Maintain : check frequently, : match results, : correct deviations.

10. 10 Recording techniques Charts 1 Outline process chart. 2 Flow process chart (man-type, material-type and equipment-type) This is the use of symbols and description to chart the sequence of work. The process, then, show what is happening at different stages. The distances and time may be given. 3 Two hands process charts. 4 Multiple activity charts This technique is used to solve problems where a number of items are dependent on each other. The aim is to reduce idle times by using the optimum number of each item. It depicts the occupied times-broken down into the number of different activities and the idle times both for the original and proposed methods of doing the job. The items are recorded on the same time scale and more than one cycle is usually needed to prevent error.

11. 11 Diagrams and models (2-D and/or 3-D) 1 Flow diagrams, which is the use of symbols for flow process charts, superimposed on drawings and the "descriptions" are not necessary. 2 String diagrams, which is used for solving movement problems since it shows congestions and excessive distances. 3 Cut-out templeats (2-D models), 4 3-D models, Photography 1 Photographs, 2 Films, 3 Video.

12. 12 Work measurement The application of technique designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. Hence, the objectives of method are to develop standard time for the followings: 1. Construction planning and scheduling, 2. Estimates of tenders, quotations and completion dates, 3. Setting output standards, 4. Balancing work of workers and machines.

13. 13 Procedure (SREMCD) 1. Select : the work to be studied, 2. Record : all relevant data, the methods and elements of the job, 3. Examine : the data to ensure that the best method is used and the productive and unproductive elements of job, 4. Measure : the quantity of work in each element in terms of time, 5. Compile : the standard time for the operation with allowances made, 6. Define : the method and issue the standard time

14. 14 Techniques 1. Time study Stages involved in time study techniques are: 1.1 Selecting the work to be measured, 1.2 Analyzing and breaking the work into elements, 1.3 Rating and timing each element, 1.4 Extending the observed time to basic time, 1.5 Selecting basic times, allocating allowances and building up the final standard. The timing technique can either be cummulative (using an ordinary watch) or flyback timing (using a stop watch).

15. 15 2. Activity sampling This technique uses the principles of the statistical method of random samples. Snap readings are taken at intervals and the percentage of readings taken per element will give a result very near the actual percentage on each if the sample is big enough. This is then used to calculate the time taken on each element if needed. The technique can be used for the followings: 1) To assess idle times, 2) To find the proportion of time spent on each element of work, 3) To find the utilization of machines/operatives as a basis for reducing idle time.

16. 16 3. Feedback of output data, 4. Synthesis from standard data or estimates.

17. 17 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION APPLICABLE TO CONSTRUCTION Performance is a function of the interaction of ability and motivation. performance = f(ability x motivation).

18. 18 Motivation Definition Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals. Generally, the motivation concerns effort toward any goal, the term "effort" comprises the qualityof the effort as well as its intensity. Motivation to the employees have to be done in a state of tension. To relieve this tension, the effort is exerted, the greater tension, the higher effort level.

19. 19 Early theories of motivation (1950s) Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow) Theory X and theory Y (McGregor) Motivation-hygiene theory

20. 20 Contemporary theories of motivation (1960s) ERG theory Three needs theory Cognitive evaluation theory Goal-setting theory Reinforcement theory Equity Theory Expectancy theory

21. 21 Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow) Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five (5) needs which are Physiological : hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, other bodily needs, Safety : security, protection from physical and emotional harm, Love : affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship, Esteem : internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy and achievement, : external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention, Self-actualization: drive to become what one is capable of becoming, include growth, achieving one's potential and self-fulfillment.

22. 22

23. 23 Theory X and theory Y (McGregor) Theory X (negative) Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.

24. 24 Theory Y (Positive) Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. Creativity-that is, theability to make innovative decisions-is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.

25. 25 Motivation-hygiene theory (Herzberg) What do people want from their job? When those questioned felt good about their work, they tended to attribute these characteristics to themselves When they were dissatisfied, they tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations and working conditions

26. 26 Herzberg proposed that his findings indicate the existence of a dual continuum; the opposite of "satisfaction" is "no satisfaction" and the opposite of "dissatisfaction" is "no dissatisfaction". Accordingly, the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Therefore, the managers will be placating their work force rather than motivating them. As a result, such characteristics as company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions and salary have been characterized by Herzberg as "hygiene factors"

27. 27 ERG theory ERG's needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs Existence Physiological and safety, Relatedness Love and external esteem, Growth Intrinsic esteem and self-actualization. In contrast to Maslow's, the ERG theory demonstates the followings: 1. More than one need may be operative at the same time. 2. If the gratification of a higher-level need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases

28. 28 Three needs theory Need for achievement the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed, achievement rather than the rewards and hence, high achievers differentiate themselves from other by their desire to do things better, Need for power the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise, the desire to have impact, to be influential and to control others, Need for Affiliation the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships, desire to be liked and accepted by others, prefering coorperative situations rather than competitive ones.

29. 29 Cognitive evaluation theory It is proposed in 1960s that the introduction of extrinsic rewards such as pay for work effort that had been previously intrinsically rewarding due to the pleasure associated with the content of work itself, would tend to decrease the overall levels of motivation. It is argued that when extensic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance, the intrinsic rewards, which are derived from individuals doing what they like are reduced. In other words, when extrinsic rewards are given to someone for performing an interesting task, it causes intrinsic interest in task itself to decline.

30. 30 Goal-setting theory It was proposed in 1960s that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. More to the point, the specific goals increase performance; that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and that feedback leads to higher performance than does non-feedback. Overall conclusion is that intentions-as articulated in terms of hard and specific goals-are a potent motivating force. They do lead to higher performance. However, there is no evidence that such goals are associated with increased job satisfaction.

31. 31 Reinforcement theory A counterpoint to goal-setting theory, reinforcement theory have a behavioristic approach in stead of a cognitive approach. It is argued that reinforcement conditions behavior. Reinforcement theory ignored the "inner state" of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens to a person when he/she takes some action.

32. 32 Equity Theory This theory consider the importance of three (3) referent categories Self-Other-Systems. If the system rewards the employee (him/her) as others, the system is fair. In contrast, if the system rewards the employee (him/her) different from the others, the system is not fair. Let O/IA : the employee, O/IB : the relevant others, the Equity theory yields the following conclusion. Ratio comparisons Perception O/IA < O/IB Inequity due to being under rewarded, O/IA = O/IB Equity, O/IA > O/IB Inequity due to being over rewarded.

33. 33 Expectancy theory This theory is the most widely accepted explanation of motivation. Although it has its critics, most of research evidence is supportive of theory. The theory argued that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. It includes the followings three (3) variables.

34. 34 1. Attractiveness This is the importance that the individual places on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job, this considers the unsatisfied needs of the individual. 2. Performance-reward linkage This is the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to attainment of a desired outcome. 3. Effort-performance linkage This is the perceived probability by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.

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