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PowerPoint Lectures for Principles of Economics, 9e By Karl E. Case, Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster. ; ;. Aggregate Supply and the Equilibrium Price Level. Prepared by:. Fernando & Yvonn Quijano. Aggregate Supply and the Equilibrium Price Level.

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Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

PowerPoint Lectures for

Principles of Economics, 9e

By

Karl E. Case, Ray C. Fair & Sharon M. Oster

; ;


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Aggregate Supplyand the EquilibriumPrice Level

Prepared by:

Fernando & Yvonn Quijano


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Aggregate Supplyand the EquilibriumPrice Level

PART VTHE CORE OF MACROECONOMIC THEORY

28

11

CHAPTER OUTLINE

The Aggregate Supply Curve

The Aggregate Supply Curve: A Warning

Aggregate Supply in the Short Run

Shifts of the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

The Equilibrium Price Level

The Long-Run Aggregate Supply CurvePotential GDP

Monetary and FiscalPolicy EffectsLong-Run Aggregate Supply and Policy Effects

Causes of InflationDemand-Pull InflationCost-Push, or Supply-Side, InflationExpectations and InflationMoney and InflationSustained Inflation as a Purely Monetary Phenomenon

The Behavior of the FedControlling the Interest RateThe Fed’s Response to the State of theEconomyFed Behavior Since 1970Inflation Targeting

Looking Ahead


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

The Aggregate Supply Curve

aggregate supply The total supply of all goods and services in an economy.

The Aggregate Supply Curve: A Warning

aggregate supply (AS) curve A graph that shows the relationship between the aggregate quantity of output supplied by all firms in an economy and the overall price level.

An “aggregate supply curve” in the traditional sense of the word supply does not exist. What does exist is what we might call a “price/output response” curve—a curve that traces out the price decisions and output decisions of all firms in the economy under a given set of circumstances.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

The Aggregate Supply Curve

Aggregate Supply in the Short Run

 FIGURE 28.1 The Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

In the short run, the aggregate supply curve (the price/output response curve) has a positive slope.

At low levels of aggregate output, the curve is fairly flat.

As the economy approaches capacity, the curve becomes nearly vertical.

At capacity, the curve is vertical.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

The Aggregate Supply Curve

Shifts of the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

cost shock, or supply shock A change in costs that shifts the short-run aggregate supply (AS) curve.

 FIGURE 28.2 Shifts of the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

The Equilibrium Price Level

equilibrium price level The price level at which the aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves intersect.

 FIGURE 28.3 The Equilibrium Price Level

At each point along the AD curve, both the money market and the goods market are in equilibrium. Each point on the AS curve represents the price/ output decisions of all the firms in the economy.

P0 and Y0 correspond to equilibrium in the goods market and the money market and to a set of price/output decisions on the part of all the firms in the economy.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

The Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

 FIGURE 28.4 The Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

When the AD curve shifts from AD0 to AD1, the equilibrium price level initially rises from P0 to P1 and output rises from Y0 to Y1.

Wages respond in the longer run, shifting the AS curve from AS0 to AS1.

If wages fully adjust, output will be back at Y0. Y0 is sometimes called potential GDP.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

The Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

The Simple “Keynesian” Aggregate Supply Curve

One view of the aggregate supply curve, the simple “Keynesian” view, holds that at any given moment, the economy has a clearly defined capacity, or maximum, output.

With planned aggregate expenditure of AE1 and aggregate demand of AD1, equilibrium output is Y1.

A shift of planned aggregate expenditure to AE2, corresponding to a shift of the AD curve to AD2, causes output to rise but the price level to remain at P1.

If planned aggregate expenditure and aggregate demand exceed YF, however, there is an inflationary gap and the price level rises to P3.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

The Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

Potential GDP

potential output, or potential GDP The level of aggregate output that can be sustained in the long run without inflation.

Short-Run Equilibrium Below Potential Output

Although different economists have different opinions on how to determine whether an economy is operating at or above potential output, there is general agreement that there is a maximum level of output (below the vertical portion of the short-run aggregate supply curve) that can be sustained without inflation.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Monetary and Fiscal Policy Effects

 FIGURE 28.5 A Shift of the Aggregate Demand Curve When the Economy Is on the Nearly Flat Part of the AS Curve

Aggregate demand can shift to the right for a number of reasons, including an increase in the money supply, a tax cut, or an increase in government spending.

If the shift occurs when the economy is on the nearly flat portion of the AS curve, the result will be an increase in output with little increase in the price level from point A to point A’.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Monetary and Fiscal Policy Effects

 FIGURE 28.6 A Shift of the Aggregate Demand Curve When the Economy Is Operating at or Near Maximum Capacity

If a shift of aggregate demand occurs while the economy is operating near full capacity, the result will be an increase in the price level with little increase in output from point B to point B’.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Monetary and Fiscal Policy Effects

Long-Run Aggregate Supply and Policy Effects

It is important to realize that if the AS curve is vertical in the long run, neither monetary policy nor fiscal policy has any effect on aggregate output in the long run.

The conclusion that policy has no effect on aggregate output in the long run is perhaps startling.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Causes of Inflation

Demand-Pull Inflation

demand-pull inflation Inflation that is initiated by an increase in aggregate demand.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Causes of Inflation

Cost-Push, or Supply-Side, Inflation

cost-push, or supply-side, inflation Inflation caused by an increase in costs.

 FIGURE 28.7 Cost-Push, or Supply-Side, Inflation

An increase in costs shifts the AS curve to the left.

By assuming the government does not react to this shift, the AD curve does not shift, the price level rises, and output falls.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Causes of Inflation

Cost-Push, or Supply-Side, Inflation

stagflation Occurs when output is falling at the same time that prices are rising.

 FIGURE 28.8 Cost Shocks Are Bad News for Policy Makers

A cost shock with no change in monetary or fiscal policy would shift the aggregate supply curve from AS0 to AS1, lower output from Y0 to Y1, and raise the price level from P0 to P1.

Monetary or fiscal policy could be changed enough to have the AD curve shift from AD0 to AD1.

This policy would raise aggregate output Y again, but it would raise the price level further, to P2.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Causes of Inflation

Expectations and Inflation

When firms are making their price/output decisions, their expectations of future prices may affect their current decisions. If a firm expects that its competitors will raise their prices, in anticipation, it may raise its own price.

Given the importance of expectations in inflation, the central banks of many countries survey consumers about their expectations.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Causes of Inflation

Money and Inflation

 FIGURE 28.9 Sustained Inflation From an Initial Increase in G and Fed Accommodation

An increase in G with the money supply constant shifts the AD curve from AD0 to AD1. Although not shown in the figure, this leads to an increase in the interest rate and crowding out of planned investment.

If the Fed tries to keep the interest rate unchanged by increasing the money supply, the AD curve will shift farther and farther to the right. The result is a sustained inflation, perhaps even hyperinflation.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

Causes of Inflation

Sustained Inflation as a Purely Monetary Phenomenon

Virtually all economists agree that an increase in the price level can be caused by anything that causes the AD curve to shift to the right or the AS curve to shift to the left.

It is also generally agreed that for a sustained inflation to occur, the Fed must accommodate it.

In this sense, a sustained inflation can be thought of as a purely monetary phenomenon.


Powerpoint lectures for principles of economics 9e by

REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS

aggregate supply

aggregate supply (AS) curve

cost-push, or supply-side, inflation

cost shock, or supply shock

demand-pull inflation

equilibrium price level

potential output, or potential GDP

stagflation


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