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Woodworking Joinery. by Scott Engelmann. Woodworking Joinery. Why are joints used? To produce more complex shapes and products When are joints used? when changing the direction of the grain or a member of the structure and to strengthen the part. What joints to use?

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woodworking joinery

Woodworking Joinery

by

Scott Engelmann

woodworking joinery1
Woodworking Joinery
  • Why are joints used? To produce more complex shapes and products
  • When are joints used? when changing the direction of the grain or a member of the structure and to strengthen the part.
  • What joints to use?
  • How to make the joint?
  • Advantages and disadvantages
slide3

Further Information

  • Woodwork Joints by William Fairham-http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/21531
  • Mario Rodriquez with Fine Woodworking Magazine
basic joints
Basic Joints
  • Butt joints
  • Miter joints
  • Bridle joints
  • Dovetail joints
  • Dado joints
  • Rabbet joints
  • Mortise and Tenon
  • Splice joints
  • Lap joints
  • Finger/Box joints
  • Groove joints
  • Splines - Keys
  • Biscuits – Dowels
  • Pocket holes
  • Frame and Panel Construction
  • Cope and Stick joinery
slide5

Common Terminology:

  • Six sides of a board: Ends, Edges, & Faces
  • Long Grain ( Edges& Faces)
  • Short Grain/End Grain

Considerations

Material

Tools/Equipment available

Skill level/Personal preferences

Time

Amount of wood movement & Direction

slide6

Requirements for a well made joint

  • Snug, not so tight that too much pressure could cause the joint to fail. Not so loose that glue is being used as “filler”. Remember, wet glue will cause wood to swell so a tight joint may become unmanageable during final assembly.
slide7

End to face Butt

Butt joints

Edge to edge Butt

Pocket hole

Reinforced Butt joints

Dowel

Spline

Biscuit

butt joints
Butt joints
  • Most commonly used joint
  • Simplest joint to make
  • Strongest application is edge to edge( long grain)
  • the more area is joined, the better will be the strength of the joint.
slide10

Miter Joints

  • A miter consists of 2 matched angles usually 45⁰ or 22.5⁰ but could be any angle depending on the result wanted
  • Hides end grain
slide12

Dovetail joints

Through Dovetail

Sliding Dovetail

Half blind Dovetail

Keyed Dovetail half lap

Dovetail half lap

slide13

Dovetail joints

  • Advantages - strong and interlocking joint- decorative
  • Disadvantages – time consuming make by hand or a jig is needed to machine cut
  • This joint requires precision cutting and can be difficult for a beginner to make well.
  • Uses- drawer and box corners
slide14

Dado joints Rabbet/Rebate joints

Stopped Dado

Through Dado

Dado-rabbet

slide15

Dado joints

  • Advantages - strong joint as the materials interlock- glue provides added strength
  • Allows for easier assembly because the boards are aligned when they fit into the dado
  • Helps to straighten cupped boards
  • Disadvantages – ?
  • Uses- shelves or dividers in a box.
  • Rabbet/Rebate joints
  • Increases glue surface
slide17

Mortise & tenon joint

  • Advantages - A very strong and versatile joint
  • Disadvantages – somewhat time consuming to make depending on the equipment avaiable
  • Uses - strong corner joints for sturdy frames for windows, doors, beds and tables
  • Mortises can be cut with routers, drills, or by hand
slide21

Splice joints

Scarf joint

Finger splice

slide22

Lap joints

Half lap

Cross lap

Mitered Half Lap

slide23

Lap joints

  • Advantages - quick and easy to cut with saw; fairly strong
  • Disadvantages - can be unsightly, best if reinforced with screws or dowels
slide25

Finger/Box joints

  • Advantages - very strong due to surface area being glued
  • Disadvantages - Needs a jig to be cut accurately
slide26

Groove joints

Through groove

Stopped groove

Tongue and Groove

Sliding Dovetail

Rabbet-groove

slide27

Groove joints

  • Helps insure proper alignment of parts
  • Increases glue surface
slide28

Splines Keys

Dovetail keys supporting a surface

slide29

More Keys & Splines

Butterfly Keys

Dovetail keys on a miter (Mock Dovetails)

Splined Miter

Keyed miter

slide31

Dowel joints

  • Advantages - quick to make and very strong
  • Disadvantages - Needs a jig or drill press to be used to drill parts accurately
  • Accuracy is paramount. The more dowels the greater the chance for misalignment making assembly harder or impossible
  • Biscuits have largely replaced dowels because thy are more forgiving
slide33

Pocket holes

Without a jig

Basic jig

slide35

Frame and Panel Construction

  • Allow 1/8” per foot across the grain for expansion and contraction
  • Try and keep your panels less than 12” wide
  • Use spacers on solid wood panels (space balls from Mcfeely)
  • Accepted practice and best appearance run the grain vertically
slide37

Glue up procedures and recommendations

Always do a full trial assembly with clamps, squares, and any other equipment needed. No one needs surprises when the glue is setting up.

Allow plenty of time. The time spent in a proper glue-up is minimal after investing the time, effort, & money in your project.

Best practice for removing glue squeeze out is don’t use to much glue. Wait until the glue skims over and remove with a sharp chisel

slide38

Practice makes perfect

  • While cutting parts for your project save and set aside any scraps or unneeded short stock
  • Use the scrap and short stock for practice cuts before cutting into the project joints. The scraps and shorts should be the exact same thickness and will give you a realistic fit of the finished joint.
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