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Woodworking Joinery. by Scott Engelmann. Woodworking Joinery. Why are joints used? To produce more complex shapes and products When are joints used? when changing the direction of the grain or a member of the structure and to strengthen the part. What joints to use?

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Woodworking joinery

Woodworking Joinery

by

Scott Engelmann


Woodworking joinery1
Woodworking Joinery

  • Why are joints used? To produce more complex shapes and products

  • When are joints used? when changing the direction of the grain or a member of the structure and to strengthen the part.

  • What joints to use?

  • How to make the joint?

  • Advantages and disadvantages


  • Further Information

  • Woodwork Joints by William Fairham-http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/21531

  • Mario Rodriquez with Fine Woodworking Magazine


Basic joints
Basic Joints

  • Butt joints

  • Miter joints

  • Bridle joints

  • Dovetail joints

  • Dado joints

  • Rabbet joints

  • Mortise and Tenon

  • Splice joints

  • Lap joints

  • Finger/Box joints

  • Groove joints

  • Splines - Keys

  • Biscuits – Dowels

  • Pocket holes

  • Frame and Panel Construction

  • Cope and Stick joinery


Common Terminology:

  • Six sides of a board: Ends, Edges, & Faces

  • Long Grain ( Edges& Faces)

  • Short Grain/End Grain

    Considerations

    Material

    Tools/Equipment available

    Skill level/Personal preferences

    Time

    Amount of wood movement & Direction


  • Requirements for a well made joint

  • Snug, not so tight that too much pressure could cause the joint to fail. Not so loose that glue is being used as “filler”. Remember, wet glue will cause wood to swell so a tight joint may become unmanageable during final assembly.


End to face Butt

Butt joints

Edge to edge Butt

Pocket hole

Reinforced Butt joints

Dowel

Spline

Biscuit


Butt joints
Butt joints

  • Most commonly used joint

  • Simplest joint to make

  • Strongest application is edge to edge( long grain)

  • the more area is joined, the better will be the strength of the joint.



  • Miter Joints

  • A miter consists of 2 matched angles usually 45⁰ or 22.5⁰ but could be any angle depending on the result wanted

  • Hides end grain



Dovetail joints

Through Dovetail

Sliding Dovetail

Half blind Dovetail

Keyed Dovetail half lap

Dovetail half lap


  • Dovetail joints

  • Advantages - strong and interlocking joint- decorative

  • Disadvantages – time consuming make by hand or a jig is needed to machine cut

  • This joint requires precision cutting and can be difficult for a beginner to make well.

  • Uses- drawer and box corners


Dado joints Rabbet/Rebate joints

Stopped Dado

Through Dado

Dado-rabbet


  • Dado joints

  • Advantages - strong joint as the materials interlock- glue provides added strength

  • Allows for easier assembly because the boards are aligned when they fit into the dado

  • Helps to straighten cupped boards

  • Disadvantages – ?

  • Uses- shelves or dividers in a box.

  • Rabbet/Rebate joints

  • Increases glue surface



  • Mortise & tenon joint

  • Advantages - A very strong and versatile joint

  • Disadvantages – somewhat time consuming to make depending on the equipment avaiable

  • Uses - strong corner joints for sturdy frames for windows, doors, beds and tables

  • Mortises can be cut with routers, drills, or by hand



Loose/Feather Tenon



Splice joints

Scarf joint

Finger splice


Lap joints

Half lap

Cross lap

Mitered Half Lap


  • Lap joints

  • Advantages - quick and easy to cut with saw; fairly strong

  • Disadvantages - can be unsightly, best if reinforced with screws or dowels



  • Finger/Box joints

  • Advantages - very strong due to surface area being glued

  • Disadvantages - Needs a jig to be cut accurately


Groove joints

Through groove

Stopped groove

Tongue and Groove

Sliding Dovetail

Rabbet-groove


  • Groove joints

  • Helps insure proper alignment of parts

  • Increases glue surface


Splines Keys

Dovetail keys supporting a surface


More Keys & Splines

Butterfly Keys

Dovetail keys on a miter (Mock Dovetails)

Splined Miter

Keyed miter



  • Dowel joints

  • Advantages - quick to make and very strong

  • Disadvantages - Needs a jig or drill press to be used to drill parts accurately

  • Accuracy is paramount. The more dowels the greater the chance for misalignment making assembly harder or impossible

  • Biscuits have largely replaced dowels because thy are more forgiving



Without a jig

Basic jig



  • Frame and Panel Construction

  • Allow 1/8” per foot across the grain for expansion and contraction

  • Try and keep your panels less than 12” wide

  • Use spacers on solid wood panels (space balls from Mcfeely)

  • Accepted practice and best appearance run the grain vertically



Glue up procedures and recommendations

Always do a full trial assembly with clamps, squares, and any other equipment needed. No one needs surprises when the glue is setting up.

Allow plenty of time. The time spent in a proper glue-up is minimal after investing the time, effort, & money in your project.

Best practice for removing glue squeeze out is don’t use to much glue. Wait until the glue skims over and remove with a sharp chisel


  • Practice makes perfect

  • While cutting parts for your project save and set aside any scraps or unneeded short stock

  • Use the scrap and short stock for practice cuts before cutting into the project joints. The scraps and shorts should be the exact same thickness and will give you a realistic fit of the finished joint.


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