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Bacteria. Kingdom Archaebacteria. Prokaryotes Single celled Cell Wall (does not have peptidoglycan) Live in harsh environments 3 major groups 1) methanogens – swamps, digestive tracts 2) halophiles – salty areas 3) thermoacidophiles – hot & acidic areas. Kingdom Eubacteria.

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kingdom archaebacteria
Kingdom Archaebacteria

Prokaryotes

Single celled

Cell Wall (does not have peptidoglycan)

Live in harsh environments

3 major groups

1) methanogens – swamps, digestive tracts

2) halophiles – salty areas

3) thermoacidophiles – hot & acidic areas

kingdom eubacteria
Kingdom Eubacteria

Prokaryotes

Single celled

Cell wall with peptidoglycan

Can live almost anywhere

3 major bacterial shapes
3 major bacterial shapes
  • Cocci – round
  • Bacilli – rod
  • Spirilli – spiral

Other terms about bacterial arrangements

  • Strep = chains
  • Staphylo = clusters
bacteria are classified according to
Bacteria are classified according to
  • Cell wall composition (gram staining)
  • Evolutionary relationship (phylogeny)
  • Shape
  • Motility (how they move)
  • Genetics/DNA
  • Metabolism (autotroph or heterotroph)
gram staining
Gram Staining

Uses 2 colored stains to determine the amount of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell walls

Gram + = purple, peptidoglycan, penicillin

Gram - = red/pink, low peptidoglycan

helpful bacteria
Helpful bacteria
  • Most (about 90%) of all bacteria are harmless or helpful to us.

Can be used for:

1) foods (cheese, buttermilk, yogurt, etc…)

2) decomposers

3) used in industry

harmful bacteria
Harmful bacteria
  • Some bacteria can be pathogens (disease causing)

Bacterial infections & diseases

strep throat food poisoning (botulism)

gonorrhea tuberculosis

salmonella lyme disease

tetanus

what makes some bacteria harmful
What makes some bacteria harmful?

1) toxins

(Exotoxins- are released by living bacteria

Endotoxins- are released when the bacteria die)

2) the bacteria destroy tissues

how do we treat bacterial infections
How do we treat bacterial infections?

ANTIBIOTICS – drugs that inhibit or kill bacteria

There are several types of antibiotics. Some are made from fungi or other bacteria.

problems caused by antibiotics
Problems caused by antibiotics
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Some people have reactions to antibiotics
special structures
Special structures

Capsules – some bacteria form a hard outer covering to protect them from drying out or your bodies immune system

Pili – short, ahir-like structures on the bacterial surface, used to help bacteria “stick”.

slide16
3) Endospores – another covering that protects the bacteria from a harsh environment, allows the bacteria to go dormant.

4) Flagella – whip-like tail to help with movement

bacteria reproduction
Bacteria & reproduction

Reproduce asexually by binary fission

Reproduce sexually by conjugation (exchange genetic information between 2 bacteria)

how bacteria get their energy
How bacteria get their energy
  • Heterotrophs

saprophytes – decomposers

2) Autotrophs

photoautotrophs – photosynthesis (no chloroplasts!!)

slide19
Some bacteria need oxygen – obligate aerobes

Some bacteria die around oxygen – obligate anaerobes

Some bacteria can live with or without oxygen – facultative anaerobes

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