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®. Analyze the Problem. Define “problem analysis” and its goal. Describe activities for problem analysis. Identify the stakeholders. Gain agreement on the problem. Find actors and define system boundaries. Start development of the project Vision. Define a problem statement.

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®

Analyze the Problem


Objectives

Define “problem analysis” and its goal.

Describe activities for problem analysis.

Identify the stakeholders.

Gain agreement on the problem.

Find actors and define system boundaries.

Start development of the project Vision.

Define a problem statement.

Identify constraints on the project.

Establish common vocabulary.

Objectives




Problem analysis

Is the process of understanding real-world problems, how they relate to stakeholder needs, and proposing solutions to meet those needs.

What is the goal of problem analysis?

Gain a better understanding before development begins.

Identify root causes.

Help find the right solution.

Avoid the “Yes, but…”

Minimize extra work.

Problem Analysis

What is the real problem?


A problem can be defined as the difference between things as perceived and things as desired

A problem can be defined as the difference between things as perceived and things as desired.

Definition of a Problem

(Problem)

perceived

desired

Gause & Weinberg, 1989


Problem analysis steps

Identify stakeholders.

Understand the root causes.

Gain agreement on the problem definition.

Identify constraints on the system or project.

Identify and validate the solution against the root causes.

Define the solution system boundary.

Problem Analysis Steps


Problem analysis roadmap
Problem Analysis Roadmap

Solution idea or Opportunity

Business

Problem

Identify stakeholders for problem.

Root cause analysis.

Business problem defined

Actual problem identified

and defined

Understand the problem in the context of the business goals.

Problem validated/adjusted

Choose the best solution(s) to meet the goals.

Reassess that the solution idea is the best solution.

Elicit Requirements

Best solution identified

Expand stakeholder list for solution.


Stakeholders definitions

Stakeholder

An individual who is materially affected by the outcome of the system or the project(s) producing the system.

Stakeholder Representative

A stakeholder representative represents one or more stakeholders. They are directly involved in the steering, shaping, and scoping of the project.

Stakeholders: Definitions


Identify the stakeholders

Each group of stakeholders needs a representative.

Not all stakeholder groups need to be consulted.

Some will provide requirements.

Customers, users, system administrators

Some may not provide requirements.

Shareholders

Identify the Stakeholders

Who are some of the stakeholders for your projects?



What is the problem behind the problem
What Is the Problem Behind the Problem?

Fishbone Diagram Techniques

The perceived business problem.

Want Privacy

when banking

No Banking at night

Too much waiting

Customers are dissatisfied with our service.

Queues in the

branches are too long

Want more banking

locations

Banking in airports

List contributing causes to the identified problem.Keep asking “Why?” (expand each rib).


Problem analysis validating a solution
Problem Analysis – Validating a Solution

The perceived solution to some ill-defined problem.

Customers are dissatisfied with

our service

Too much waiting

No Banking at night

We need ATMs.

Want more banking

locations

Queues in the

branches are too long

Banking in airports

List the reasons why the solution is the right solution.Keep asking “Why?” (expand each rib).


Pareto effect analysis

50

45

40

Banking at Night

35

More banking locations

30

Banking at airport

25

20

Queues too long

15

Privacy while banking

10

Other Reasons

% Contribution

5

0

Contributing Causes

Pareto effect Analysis


Focus on largest contributors pareto s law
Focus on Largest Contributors - Pareto’s Law

80%

20% of the effort yields 80% of the benefit.

Benefit

20%

Effort

Rank in order. Use the 80-20 Rule to focus on the top contributing causes to address the greatest portion of the problem.


Understand the broader context of the problem

A lack of understanding the business and its goals increases risk.

Does the problem have an organization/process component?

Does the team understand the domain in which the problem exists?

Does solving the problem present the opportunity to make process improvements?

Understand the Broader Context of the Problem


Business modeling and requirements disciplines
Business Modeling and Requirements Disciplines risk.

The connection between disciplines.

Business Modeling

Requirements


Business models

Model organization structure and dynamics. risk.

Business processes

Organizational structure

Roles and responsibilities

Visualize the organization and its processes.

Help understand current problems.

Identify potential improvements.

Derive and validate system requirements needed to support the organization.

Business Models

  • Products

  • Deliveries

  • Events


Exercise 4.1: Identify the Problem for your Project risk.

  • Identify and rank root causes.

    • Fishbone diagram


Describe the problem in the vision document

Stakeholder risk.

Requests

Describe the Problem in the Vision Document

Problem

Definition

Vision Document

Supplementary

Specification

Use-Case Model

User Documentation Specifications

Design Specifications


Vision document

Communicates information between management, marketing, and the project team.

Provides initial customer feedback.

Fosters general understanding of the product.

Establishes scope and priority of high-level stakeholder requests and features.

A system-level document that describes the “what” and “why” of the product.

A document that gets “all parties working from

the same book.”

Vision

Vision Document


Vision document outline

Introduction the project team.

Positioning

Stakeholder and User Descriptions

Product Overview

Product Features

Constraints

Quality Ranges

Precedence and Priority

Other Product Requirements

Documentation Requirements

Appendix 1 - Feature Attributes

Vision Document Outline*

* see http://cstalon.utdallas.edu/samples/vision_exercise.pdf


Gain agreement on the problem definition
Gain Agreement on the Problem Definition the project team.

Problem Statement

The problem of

(describe the problem)

(the stakeholders affected by the problem)

affects

the impact of which is

(what is the impact of the problem)

a successful solution would

(list some key business benefits of a

successful solution)

Vision


Identify constraints
Identify Constraints the project team.

Environmental

Economic

Political

Technical

Feasibility

System


Identify the best business solution

Identify a number of solutions for the main contributing problems.

Technical, non-technical, or both.

Choose the ones that:

Best solve the root causes.

Support the business’ goals.

Gather the requirements to implement the solution.

Identify the Best Business Solution


Define the solution system boundary
Define the Solution System Boundary problems.

Other

Systems

Users

LegacySystem

New System

Reports

Communications

Maintenance


Actors help define system boundaries
Actors Help Define System Boundaries problems.

System boundary?

PC

PC

Server

Server

PC

PC

PC

Is the client software part of the system or is the client an actor?

User


Capture a common vocabulary

Define terms used in the project. problems.

Help prevent misunderstandings.

  • Capture common vocabulary

    • Start as soon as possible.

    • Continue throughout the project.

Glossary

Capture a Common Vocabulary


Visualize the glossary with a domain model
Visualize the Glossary With a Domain Model problems.

1..*

1

*

1..2

Trading Acct.

Transaction

Trade Customer

Market transaction

Limit Transaction

Transfer


Vision problems.

: Describe the Problem

  • Start the Vision document.

    • Identify project stakeholders.

    • Find actors and system boundaries.

    • Identify constraints on the project.

    • Formulate a problem statement.


Review analyze the problem

What are the activities in problem analysis? problems.

How do you gain agreement on the problem?

Who are the stakeholders in your project?

How can actors be used to help determine the boundaries of a system?

Why is it important to establish a glossary?

What should be included in a problem statement?

Review: Analyze the Problem


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