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Chapter 8 Finding the Facts PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 8 Finding the Facts. Critical Thinking -Tools for Ethical Decisions When Facts Are At Issue Moral disagreements are about values but also facts . Some philosophers have argued that facts, not values, are actually the crux of most moral disagreements.

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Chapter 8 Finding the Facts

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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

Critical Thinking-Tools for Ethical Decisions

When Facts Are At Issue

Moral disagreements are about values but also facts.

Some philosophers have argued that facts, not values,

are actually the crux of most moral disagreements.

“The devil is in the details”

8 Finding the Facts


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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

What Facts Are At Issue?

Facts can be confusing, misleading and inaccurate.

Three kinds of statistics

Death Penalty—Why does society permit it?

Critical Thinking Questions

What facts/evidence support its use?

What societies have it and which societies do not?

What are the comparisons?

How would you get evidence for or against the claimed deterrence effect?

Other critical thinking questions?

8 Finding the Facts


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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

What Facts Are At Issue?

Gun Control Why does society permit it?

Critical Thinking Questions

How many lives, for example, do guns take?

Compare other countries, what are the facts?

Who has it and who does not have it.

What is the evidence?

Other critical thinking questions?

8 Finding the Facts


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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

What Facts Are At Issue?

Marijuana- Why doesn’t society permit it?

Critical Thinking Questions

What would happen if marijuana use were legalized?

How do we find out?

Can we make comparisons with other countries?

How dangerous is the stuff?

Other critical thinking questions?

8 Finding the Facts


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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

What Facts Are At Issue?

Women in the military Why does society permit it?

Critical Thinking Questions

What actually have been the results of women in fighting positions in the military?

Have they jeopardized the safety of fellow soldiers or marines?

What affect does it have on families? Is it different than men?

Other critical thinking questions.

8 Finding the Facts


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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

Getting the Facts.

Some issues are simple while others are quite complex to discover facts.

Question: What percent of the federal budget goes to “welfare”?

Means tested by income:

Food stamps, unemployment compensation, welfare block grants to states, child nutrition programs and Medicaid.

Results: 12% (1996)

Entitlement

Social security, veterans’ benefits, Medicare, earned income tax credits, student loans and grants, refugee assistance, etc.

Results: 60% (1996)

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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

Getting the Facts.

Studies can show opposites occurring. Conflicting data. What appears to be “obvious” is not. Look deeper!

Capital punishment

Increased and decreased

No absolutes in conclusions

Don’t give up! No evidence or just opinions is morally irresponsible

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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

Sources:

Library/Librarians

Books and Journals

Ethics Web sites

Peer Review –Get Both Sides of the Story

Author’s credentials

Research

Impartial

Scientific Journals

Tone of sources, extreme or simplistic, attacking, demeaning

Arguments on both sides presented

Media bias

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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

  • Inferences

  • Facts to conclusions

  • Generalizations

  • Small sample-limited data, a few examples-to stand for the whole.

  • Good generalizations do three things:

  • Cites specific and clear examples.

  • Cites many examples. More than antidotal

  • Cites representative examples, not all of one type, and give enough

  • background information to allow us to evaluate for ourselves how

  • significant and representative the examples are.

  • Example: Innocent death row inmates are executed

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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

  • Comparisons

  • Seemingly similar situations

  • A good comparison does two things:

  • Cities as a comparison a clear case about which true claims are made.

  • Cites as a comparison a relevantly similar case.

  • Example

  • Argument: Gun control in the United States is necessary since it reduces

  • homicides in Singapore. Is the comparison valid?

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Chapter 8

Finding the Facts

  • Inferring Cause from Correlation

  • Cause and effect relationship

  • Example

  • Violence on TV correlates with real-life violence.

  • A good argument from correlation to cause:

  • Cities accurate correlations

  • Explains how the (proposed) cause leads to the (proposed) effect

  • Argues that the proposed cause-effect relationship is the best explanation

  • of the correlation.

  • A & B

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Exercises and Notes:

Identify the Facts at Issue

Page 144

Finding the Facts

Page 145

8 Finding the Facts


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