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315CR. SEMIOTICS. Semiotics is the study of signs. A sign is something that stands for something other than itself. What is semiotics about?. SEMIOTICS IS “concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign ” (Umberto Eco 1976). WHICH

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315cr

315CR


315cr

SEMIOTICS

Semiotics is the study of signs. A sign is something that stands for something other than itself.


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What is semiotics about?

SEMIOTICS IS

“concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign” (Umberto Eco 1976)

WHICH

CANTAKE THE FORM of words, images, sounds, gestures and objects

ALSO

the discipline that studies the capacity of humans to make, disseminate, and understand these signs

BUT

involves the study not only of what we refer to as 'signs' in everyday speech, but also of anything that 'stands for' something else…


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For example:

An open sign hanging in the window of a business.


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Or:

A word such as, “Tree”

or a picture:

Or a drawing:


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Ferdinand de Saussure 1857-1913


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SIGNIFIED

SIGNIFIER


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Saussure

  • Signs are purely psychological.

  • Signs only make sense in a formal abstract system. A one word language is an impossibility.

  • A sign refers to what it is not.


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Saussure

Saussure believed that signs do not represent reality but construct it.

  • We come to know the world through language.

  • Signs reflect the system they are found in.

  • The relationship between the sign/signifier is not a matter of personal choice. “It is because the sign is arbitrary that it knows no law other than tradition.”


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Barthes

Connotation /Denotation /Myth


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Barthes

Denotation: Refers to the commonsense meaning of a sign. A photograph of a dog denotes a dog.

Connotation: Describes the interaction that occurs between the subjective user and their culture. The photograph of the dog is taken in a way to appear sad.


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Barthes

Myth: It is the dominate ideology of our time. It is when connotations become “naturalized”.


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Denotative level:

a photograph of the movie star

Connotative level: associations with glamour, sexuality, beauty or depression or drug-taking and untimely death

Myth: the dream factory can produces glamour, but also can crush it


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Stuart Hall

Encoding/Decoding model

A message is encoded with one meaning but may be decoded as another.

This draws from Gramsci’s theory of Hegemony.

The reading of a text may be read (decoded) in three different ways: dominant, negotiated, and oppositional.


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What does this mean for your ‘Adverts’?

You need to be aware that what you design/storyboard creates meaning in the minds of your audience.

Are you manipulating the correct connotational and mythical understandings?

How will your audience ‘read’ your advert?


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