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Scaling Up An Introduction. Presentation in Washington, DC on May 8, 2013 Johannes F. Linn Emerging Markets Forum and Brookings jlinn@brookings.edu. 1. Preamble: What’s in a word…?. Two meanings of “scaling up”: “increasing the amount of money” “taking successful programs to scale”

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scaling up an introduction

Scaling Up An Introduction

Presentation in Washington, DC on May 8, 2013

Johannes F. Linn

Emerging Markets Forum and Brookings

jlinn@brookings.edu

jlinn@brookings.edu

1

preamble what s in a word
Preamble:What’s in a word…?

Two meanings of “scaling up”:

  • “increasing the amount of money”
  • “taking successful programs to scale”

Today we’re concerned with 2.

jlinn@brookings.edu

what s the problem
What’s the problem?

Ambitious global development goals (MDGs, 1m rural poor, etc.), but…

  • Fragmentation of government and aid programs
  • Difficulties of coordination
  • Failure to “connect the dots”, i.e., to reap the benefits of scale through learning, replication and partnership

 need to scale up successful interventions

jlinn@brookings.edu

scaling up a general approach
Scaling up: a general approach
  • Define scaling up:
    • “Scaling up means expanding, replicating, adapting and sustaining successful policies, programs or projects in different places and over time to reach a greater number of people.” (Hartmann and Linn, 2008)
  • The key question: If some intervention works as a pilot, how do we take it to scale?
  • Or: How do we develop pathways from innovation to learning and scaling up beyond individual project?

jlinn@brookings.edu

the pathway from innovation to learning and scaling up
The pathway from innovation to learning and scaling up

Internal

knowledge

Scale up

New idea, model, approach

Pilot,

Project

M&E,

Learning

& KM

Outside

knowledge

Multiple

Impact

Limited

Impact

jlinn@brookings.edu

the cycle of innovation learning and scaling up
The cycle of innovation, learning and scaling up
  • Innovation, learning and scaling up are separate, albeit linked processes.
  • They are generally complementary, but compete for resources.
  • Not every innovation can or should be scaled up.
  • Not every scaling up needs to involve an innovation.
  • The innovation-learning-scaling up cycle has no blue-print, is not linear or fixed –
    • but context-specific, iterative and flexible
    • but it helps having a framework and being systematic

jlinn@brookings.edu

how to define pathways for scaling up
How to define pathways for scaling up

Need to go beyond individual projects and develop scaling up pathways over time:

  • Define the desired scale and time horizon (“beyond project”)
  • Define the intermediate steps and results (“for the project”)
  • Focus on “drivers” and “spaces” for scaling up (next slide)
  • Select the operational instruments/approaches
    • With own resources, or with partners (co-financing, hand-off, etc.)
    • Financing mechanisms
    • Institutional approaches
    • Implementation/management modalities
  • Monitor and evaluate

jlinn@brookings.edu

drivers and spaces define the pathways for scaling up
“Drivers” and “spaces” define the pathways for scaling up

Drivers

  • Innovative ideas
  • Vision of scale
  • Leadership/champions
  • Stake holders
  • Market demand
  • External catalysts
  • Incentives and accountability

Spaces (Constraints)

  • Fiscal and financial resources
  • Organizational (institutional and human) resources
  • Policy
  • Political
  • Cultural
  • Partnerships
  • Learning (incl. M&E)

jlinn@brookings.edu

8

risks of inadequate consideration of key scaling up factors
Risks of inadequate consideration of key scaling up factors
  • Opportunities for scaling up may be missed (“Type 1 error”) or scaling up may be done badly (“Type 2 error”).
  • Failure to identify financial/policy/capacity/political constraints may limit the potential for scaling up later.
    • Not paying attention to costs may create “boutique” approaches that only work on a small scale.
    • Setting up special purpose entities (e.g., PIUs), rather than working through ministries, may limit institutional options later.
  • Lack of effective, timely M&E may lead to poor decisions in scaling up
  • Failure to work with partners early may limit their buy-in later (esp. important with PPPs)

jlinn@brookings.edu

towards a new scaling up model with ppp status quo
Towards a new scaling up model with PPP: Status quo

Source, Chandy et al. 2013

jlinn@brookings.edu

hybrid scaling up model
Hybrid scaling up model

jlinn@brookings.edu

Source, Chandy et al. 2013

m pesa a hybrid model of mobile money service in kenya
M-PESA: A Hybrid Model of Mobile Money Service in Kenya
  • Initially developed as micro-credit payment mechanism, then scaled up as mobile money service
  • Key actors: Vodafone and DFID challenge fund; Kenyan microfinance institution (Faulu); government
  • Exemplary customer driven design, management, execution
  • Regulation followed innovation

jlinn@brookings.edu

overall conclusion 5 gaps and 5 recommendations
Overall conclusion:5 gaps and 5 recommendations
  • Partnership gap: public/private actors should explore joint/complementary approaches and instruments with joint/hybrid funding of programs designed to bring partners together so they can scale up successful interventions;
  • Incentives gap: governments/donors/COSs need to provide incentives to their partners and their own managers/staff to pursue scaling up;
  • Evaluation gap: evaluations of government/donor/CSO projects should include an assessment of the scaling up practices;
  • Institutional information gap: Governments/donors /CSOs should review and develop their institutional approaches to scaling up;
  • Mindset gap: We need to move from a focus on “making the project work” to a focus on “how do we move beyond the project if it works”?

jlinn@brookings.edu

some references
Some references
  • A. Hartmann and J. Linn. 2008. “Scaling Up: A Framework and Lessons for Development Effectiveness from Literature and Practice.” Wolfensohn Center Working Paper No. 5. Brookings.
  • J. Linn, A. Hartmann, H. Kharas, R. Kohl, and B. Massler. 2010. “Scaling Up the Fight Against Rural Poverty: An Institutional Review of IFAD’s Approach”, Global Working Paper No. 39 , Brookings.
  • L. Chandy, A. Hosono, H. Kharas and J. Linn, 2013 Getting to Scale: How to Bring Developmnt Solutions to Millions of Poor People. Washington, DC. Brookings Press.

jlinn@brookings.edu

thank you

Thank you!

jlinn@brookings.edu

15

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