History of transition
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History of Transition. Tracey Williams Comprehensive Exam Fall 2008. 1. Learning Objectives After each section the student will: 1) Identify events that have been important in shaping the present and the future of transition education? 2) Identify persons that have been important

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History of transition

History of Transition

Tracey Williams

Comprehensive Exam

Fall 2008

1


History of transition

Learning Objectives

After each section the student will:

1) Identify events that have been important in shaping the present and the future of

transition education?

2) Identify persons that have been important

in shaping the present and the future of transition education?

3) Identify major contributors in the field of transition?

Objectives


History of transition

Early 1800s: Onset of DisabilityMid- 1800s: Civil War EraLate-1800s: Victorian Era

1900s-1950sWorld War I & II EraLegislation Researchers

1960s

Vocational Education Movement1970s

Career Education Movement

Outline

Part III

Part I

Part IV

Part V

Part II

1980s-1990sTransition Education Movement

Accountability Movement2000s-current

3


History of transition

1960s-1970s1960s Vocational Education Movement* Educational climate* Legislation* Researchers1970s Career Education Movement* Educational climate* Legislation* Researchers

Part

III


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Educational Climate

Teachers were not trained to teach areas outside of academics

Some criticisms on the few secondary programs

Job trainings restricted to few jobs

Worked in only low-skilled positions

Job training restricted for the blind

Federal government began to show interest in children with disabilities through legislation

Vocational Education Act of 1963

ESEA

State operated school and hospitals


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement1

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Educational Climate

Work study originated in Texas by Eskridge and Partridge

Youth with MR were trained by teachers

Youth needed more specific training

Job hunting, analysis, placement, & work counseling

Vocational Rehabilitation counselors assigned to schools by regions

Successful model that

spread nationally


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement2

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Educational Climate

Civil Rights Movement

Idea of Normalization

Independent living

Independent living unfolded within legislation

Development of advocacy agencies

1961 Presidents Panel on Mental Retardation was formed


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement3

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Legislation

1963-Vocational Education Act

Served disadvantaged children

Served children with disabilities along with nondisabled peers

Provided funding

business education

cooperative work study


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement4

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Legislation

1968-Vocational Education Act Amendments

Broaden programs

secondary

post-secondary

Emphasized the need for improved access

Introduced-”set aside’ funding

10% special education

15% for disadvantaged children

Each state must have and advisory committee

Parents, teachers, vocation educators, higher

education leaders

Some states took five years to develop programs

Kolstoe appointed to National Advisory Committee


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement5

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Researchers

Jerry Chaffin (1969, 1971)

Follow-up studies

Work or vocational data for people with disabilities

William Younie

Leader in vocational education

Defined work methods for vocational rehabilitation teachers & counselors

Publications reflected inclusion practices


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement6

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Researchers

Marc Gold

Systematic training (dissertation)

Youth who were severely MR

Ground breaking quantitative studies

Youth can perform complex assembly task in sheltered environment and with training

Youth showed that rate of completion had no correlation to their disability


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement7

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Researchers

More on Marc Gold

“Try Another Way” 1972 methodology

Train to tasks

Utilize strengths

Expect more

All students can learn

Supported employment

Work was extended and refined

Community-based

competitive work

Websites on Marc Gold

http://www.marcgold.com/mglegacy_files/frame.html

http://www.marcgold.com/aboutmarcgold.html

http://www.marcgold.com/durginarticle.html32c

Died of Parkinson Disease

1939-1982


History of transition

On to the 70s


Part iii 1970s career education movement

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

VE

CE

What do you believe are some differences between

Vocational Education and Career Education ?

vs


Part iii 1970s career education movement1

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate

Career education defined

1) Sidney Marland,Commissioner of Education from 1970 to 1972

Preparing to earn a living and learn about living

2) Kenneth Hoyt, U.S. Office of Education

Redefined career education

1975-totality of experiences through which one learns about and prepares for work (paid and unpaid)

1977- ways that help individual acquire and utilize knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for each to make work a meaningful, productive, and satisfying experience.


Part iii 1970s career education movement2

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate

Career education defined by CEC 1977

Education that focuses on the roles a person is likely to play in his or her own lifetime such as

Student

Employee

Recreator

Family member

Citizen

Career education is what people do to learn how to engage in these roles.


Part iii 1970s career education movement3

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate

Models of career education emerged.

1979- Life Centered Career Education Model (Brolin & Kokaska)

1979- School-based Career development and transition Education model (Clark 1979)

1981- Career Education for Exceptional Children and Youth (Gillet,1981)


Part iii 1970s career education movement4

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate cont’

Models of career education

1979- Life Centered Career Education Model (Brolin & Kokaska 1978)

3 categories with competencies

Daily Living Skills

Personal-Social Skills

Occupational Guidance and Preparation

Begin in kindergarten- throughout adultood

Life Centered Education Approach

articles\Brolin and Kokaska 79.pdf

5th edition 186 pages


Part iii 1970s career education movement5

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate cont’

Models of career education

Who was Don Brolin?

Chair of DCD for 2 years and organizer of it (along with Kolstoe)

University of Columbia 1936-1996

Brolin (to the left) and

Halpren at Alabama’s

first annual conference-

1991


Part iii 1970s career education movement6

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate cont’

Models of career education

Who was Charles Kokaska?

Founding editor of DCDT

President Elect for DCDT 1984-85

Written about topics such as:

Epilepsy (he had epilepsy)

Making it as a resource teacher

Parent handbook for LCCS

Disabled superheroes

Disabled people in the bible

Career education

Job placement

Elementary classroom techniques

http://www.disabilityheroes.com/


Part iii 1970s career education movement7

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate cont’

Clark and Kolstoe Models of career education

1979,1980 Clark:

School-based Career Development and Transition Education Model

1990,1995 Clark and Kolstoe :

Clark and Kolstoe Career Development and Transition Education Model

2000,2006 Sitlington & Clark:

Comprehensive Transition Education Services Models


Part iii 1970s career education movement8

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate

Clarks Comprehensive Transition Education Services Models

9 domains

Communication and Academic Performance

Self-determination

Interpersonal Relationships

Integrated Community Participation

Health and Fitness

Independent/Interdependent daily Living

Leisure and Recreational

Employment

Further Education and Training


Clarks comprehensive transition education services models 9 domains with exit points

Clarks Comprehensive Transition Education Services Models9 domains with Exit Points


Clarks comprehensive transition education services models 9 domains with service delivery systems

Clarks Comprehensive Transition Education Services Models9 domains with Service Delivery Systems


Part iii 1970s career education movement9

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate cont’

Models of career education

Who is Gary Clark?

Collaborated with Kolstoe to write the principal textbook on transition.

Focused on transition assessment with Jim Patton and developed one of the first assessments instruments in transition

TPI transition planning Inventory (printed and computerized)

Author, researcher, teacher, mentor

Retired from University of Kansas

2008


Part iii 1970s career education movement10

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Educational Climate cont’

Models of career education

1981- Gillet

Career education for Exceptional Children and Youth

Specific type and degree of disability

Continuum of services

Cooperation from all


Part iii 1970s career education movement11

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Rehabilitation and Civil Rights Legislation

1970 Developmental Disabilities Bill of Rights Act

expanded services and facility construction to persons with DD other than mental retardation

1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act

Raised employment level for unemployed, unskilled youth and adults


Part iii 1970s career education movement12

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Rehabilitation Legislation

1973- Vocational Rehabilitation Act

First Civil Rights Act for people with disabilities

Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination in work place

Section 503

Covered government employees or contractors

Section 504

Covered nongovernment programs, services, & employment

American with Disabilities Act and extension of section 504 will be discussed in the 1990s.


Part iii 1970s career education movement13

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Rehabilitation Legislation

1973- Vocational Rehabilitation Act

1983 and 1986 Rehabilitation Amendments

Funds for supportive employment

1992 Rehabilitation Amendments

To empower individual with disabilities to achieve economic self-sufficiency, independence, and

inclusion and integration in to society.

1) Same transition definition in IDEA

2) Individualized written rehabilitation plan (IWRP) must be coordinated with IEP

3) Existing assessment data could be used

1998 Rehabilitation Amendments

Discuss later during 1900s


Part iii 1970s career education movement14

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Special Education Legislation

1975- (PL 91-142) Education for all Handicapped Children Act

FAPE

Mandated IEP

Forced Educators to focus on individual child

Access to general education gained attention to career education for students with disabilities

No mandates about transition

Researches began to document poor outcomes for children with disabilities


Part iii 1970s career education movement15

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Special Education Legislation

1983 (PL98-199) Education for all Handicapped Children Act Amendments

Authorized 6.6million dollars in funding to develop and support school-to-work

Funded National Longitudinal Transition Study

1986 Amendments

Reauthorized funding

Part H mandated provisions services for early childhood


Part iii 1970s career education movement16

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Researchers

Susan Brody Hasazi

1970s

Mainstreaming

Instructional practices

Follow-up studies (Hasazi, Gordon, & Roe,1985)

1980s

continued interest in mainstreaming/LRE

postschool outcomes for students with disabilities

1990s

IDEA mandates

Interest emerging in educational leadership

Today

educational leadership

parent/school partnerships

Currently at University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont


Part iii 1970s career education movement17

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Researchers

Lou Brown

He retired in 2003 and is now an Emeritus Professor, Lecturer, Expert Witness and Consultant

In 1971 he had over 15 publications

Known for radical views

Averaged 5 or more publication per year

research interests

development of service delivery models

curricula and values that prepare individuals with disabilities to live, work, and play in integrated society


Part iii 1970s career education movement18

Part III1970s-Career Education Movement

Researchers

Frank Rusch

“Identified as the 16th

most productive researcher

in the field of mental

retardation during the past 20 years"

by the Inside Illinois News Bureau newsletter

Areas of interest:

mental retardation, career development, supported employment, and transition.

In the late 1980s co-director of the National Institute on Transition along with DeStephno

studied problems associated with our past failure.

ten characteristic for successful transition emerged


Part iii 1960s vocational education movement8

Part III1960s-Vocational Education Movement

Discussion Question

1) Identify one or two events and/or people during the 1960’s and 1970’s that you feel have been most important in shaping transition practices? Explain why?

Reflect:

2) In your experiences, how did the events or people you identified influence your practices in transition?


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