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WORKSHOP ON UTILITY WIND INTEGRATION STUDIES: MODELS AND METHODS. Panel 6 – Base Load Unit Cycling Costs Gene Danneman P.E. June 24 & 25, 2010. Wear and Tear. Cost Optimization Dispatch Operations Maintenance Capital retrofits. Start Here -. Resource planning New Flexible Units.

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Workshop on utility wind integration studies models and methods

WORKSHOP ONUTILITY WIND INTEGRATION STUDIES: MODELS ANDMETHODS

Panel 6 – Base Load Unit Cycling Costs

Gene Danneman P.E.

June 24 & 25, 2010


Wear and tear
Wear and Tear

Cost Optimization

Dispatch

Operations

Maintenance

Capital retrofits

Start Here -

Resource planning

New Flexible Units

Wind

Penetration

Mitigate

costs / risks

Wind and solar

load ramps

faster than

load demand

Thermal Plant

Wear and Tear

(Wind Wear)

Forced outages

Increase - $$

Thermal Plants mission changes

System bottoming

Ramp rate – up/down

Ramp range

# of cycles

Metal Fracture

causes

forced outage

Increased

thermal cycles

cause additional

wear and tear


Mn wind 2008 2009 smoothed
MN Wind 2008/2009 (smoothed)

MW / hour (smoothed)

Day of year

Time of Day



Conventional plant challenges of wind integration
Conventional Plant Challenges of Wind Integration

  • More Net Load Ramp Up & Down cycles on all units

  • More Turn-down on baseload units

    • Lower unit minimums

    • Faster ramps up and down

  • Greater Cumulative System Variability (Net Load = Load - Wind)

  • Increased Starts/Stops on Gas-fired units

  • Gas pipeline balancing & coal supply issues


Generation unit cycling definitions
Generation Unit CyclingDefinitions

Load Cycling

LL1 Lowest Load at Which Design Superheater / Reheater Temperatures can be Maintained

LL2 Current “Advertised” Low Load (~AGC minimum)

LL3 Lowest Load at Which the Unit can Remain On-Line


Deep load following scenario
Deep Load Following Scenario

MW

Ancillary Services

~95% FULL Load

Down- Up

Ramp Rate

LL1

$?

Safe, Stable, Environmentally Compliant

LL2

Time


Cycling effects

600 MW Baseloaded

600 MW Cycling and Upgraded for Cycling

30

600 MW Cycling - No Upgrades for Cycling

600 MW Cycling and Designed for Cycling

25

600 MW Cycling Arrows Show Infusion of

Capital Spending

20

Equivalent Forced

Outage Rate (%)

15

Unit Upgraded (Capital Added)

10

Reduced

5

Plant Life

x

0

5

35

10

15

20

30

40

25

45

50

Age in Years

Shaded Area =

Cycling-Related

Cycling Begins

Cycling Effects

Lost Generation


Consequences of cycling damage
Consequences of Cycling Damage - $$$

  • Increased O&M costs

  • Reduction in the life of key plant components and overall unit life

  • Decrease in overall unit reliability

  • Increase fuel cost


Unit flexibility options many moving parts
Unit Flexibility Options – Many Moving Parts

emissions

Unit Maintenance

Cycle Damage

EFOR PdM/PMs

Unit Operation

Fatigue Stress

cycle damage

System Dispatch

Lower Cycling costs

Fuel Flexibility

Optimize Overall

System Costs

Energy and Capacity

Transactions

Impact on cycle wear

Unit Upgrades

Improve flexibility

Resource

Planning

Low cost flexible resources


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