Marine operations using space transportation
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Marine Operations Using Space Transportation. Terry Phillips Schafer Corp 13 July 05. ICD for Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion (Sustain). Defines Capacity for JFC to Rapidly Transport Strategic Capabilities to Any Point on Globe

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Marine operations using space transportation

Marine OperationsUsingSpace Transportation

Terry Phillips

Schafer Corp

13 July 05


Icd for small unit space transport and insertion sustain

ICD for Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion (Sustain)

  • Defines Capacity for JFC to Rapidly Transport Strategic Capabilities to Any Point on Globe

  • Addresses Rapid Employment of Tailored Expeditionary Forces from CONUS Including Use of National Security Space (NSS)

Material Approaches

  • Increased Forward Presence

  • Evolutionary Improvements to Conventional Assault Support

  • Revolutionary Improvements to Terrestrial Aviation Capabilities

  • Space Insertion-Terrestrial Extraction

  • Space Insertion and Extraction with Refueling

  • Space Insertion and Extraction without Refueling

Marine BGen Richard C Zilmer, Commander 29 Palms Training Command:

“We briefed the Pentagon, Congress, USSOCOM, and the NSC and were never thrown out.

25-30 years from now the idea is to move a squad-sized unit of Marines to any

place on Earth in less than two hours.”


Hot eagle incrementally addresses multiple capabilities

HOT EAGLE Incrementally Addresses Multiple Capabilities

  • Affordable, Reliable Spacelift

  • Global or Theater ISR

  • Space to Space ISR

  • Space Interdiction and Control

  • Force Application to Space

  • Force Application to Globe

  • Space Insertion of Personnel

  • Global Insertion of Personnel


Multiple options evaluated

Multiple Options Evaluated

  • Space Insertion – Terrestrial Extraction

  • Forward Deployment Space Insertion and Extraction

  • Limited Range Space Insertion and Extraction Without Refueling

  • Near Space Revolutionary Improvements to Terrestrial Aviation Capabilities

  • Revolutionary Improvements to Terrestrial Aviation Capabilities Limited Range and Space Insertion and Extraction

  • Space Insertion and Extraction With Refueling

  • Space Insertion and Extraction Without Refueling


Cav based marine space transportation options space insertion terrestrial extraction

CAV-Based Marine Space Transportation OptionsSpace Insertion – Terrestrial Extraction

  • Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) Resupply

    • Maneuvering reentry vehicle

    • GPS guided parafoil final descent

    • CONUS launch

    • 1000 lb payload currently

  • CAV-Based RV Team Insertion

    • 20 Klb class CAV-like vehicle

    • Capacity: Marine squad plus equipment

    • Trajectory optimized for low “g” with resulting light weight structure

    • Integral life support

    • 2 hours maximum from launch to insertion

    • Stealthy insertion

  • Multiple Team Extraction Concepts

Light Weight

Structure Evolution


Team extraction approaches

Team Extraction Approaches

  • Self Extraction – Hike Out

    • Leave crew capsule behind

  • Aircraft/Helicopter/Ship

    • Osprey / C-17 / C-130

    • Leave crew capsule behind

  • Crew Capsule Pick Up Via Aircraft/Helicopter

    • CAV crew capsule separates from aeroshell and life support

    • Crew compartment pick-up via balloon cable and C-17

    • Pick up crew capsule via C-17


Bimese rlv marine space transportation options forward deployment space insertion extraction

Bimese RLV Marine Space Transportation OptionsForward Deployment Space Insertion & Extraction

  • Use Bimese VTVL RLV

    • Bimese both stages same size

    • Upper stage has 24,000 fps ΔV ideal

  • Forward Deploy Upper Stage Only

    • Bimese can launch from CONUS, recover upper stage globally

  • Refuel and Launch Upper Stage

    • Upper stage inserts team

    • Arrival not stealthy

  • Recover Upper Stage

    • Team performs mission, moves to pick-up location

  • Upper Stage Picks Up Team

  • Out of Box Team Extraction Idea

    • Upper stage rejoins with C-17 which tows stage home

    • Stage is released for independent landing

Single Bimese Stage Range


Bimese rlv marine space transportation options forward deployment space insertion extraction cont

Bimese RLV Marine Space Transportation OptionsForward Deployment Space Insertion & Extraction (cont)

  • Both Bimese Stages Could Forward Deploy

    • With identical stages, 2 CONUS launches forward deploy

    • Alternatively ship or aircraft could transport one stage

  • Stages Mated and Fueled at Forward Location

    • Upper stage inserts team

    • Recovers in theater

    • Portable LOX generation, JP-8 fuel, portable mating gear, bare pad launch possible with VTVL stages

  • Range Increases 50-100% Using Two Stages

Bimese RLV Range

Bimese Technology Implications

High Mass Fraction Stages Required

High AoA Reentries Useful for Stealthy Ingress

Operability Technologies for Forward deployment


Marine operations using space transportation

Heavy Lift RLV Marine SpaceTransportation OptionGlobal Insertion & Limited Range Extraction without Refueling

  • Heavy-Lift Vehicle – Many Options

    • Launches Full-Propellant RLV Upper Stage

    • CONUS to Global Locations

    • Traditional modular approaches

    • Or Revolutionary technologies (DE, CCE, etc.)

  • RLV Uses Only Landing Propellant during Insertion

    • Landing propellant only 10-12% of propellant load

    • Limited Stealth

      • Insertion sonic boom can be minimized via high alpha reentry

      • Rocket engine ignition 2-3 min prior to landing not stealthy (but throttle is low)

    • Most propellant reserved for extraction

    • Integral DE fire support possible

  • RLV extracts team

    • Recovers in-theater

    • 500-1000 nm range

Technology Implications

Very High Mass Fraction

Upper Stage Needed

Close to Desired Marine Capability

No CONUS Direct Return Possible Initially

Mass Fraction Improvements could Enable Longer Range Returns


Marine operations using space transportation

Heavy Lift RLV Marine SpaceTransportation OptionGlobal Insertion & Limited Range Extraction without Refueling

  • Supports SOCOM Space Enabling

    Concept Requirement, 18 Mar 04

  • UNS Marine Requirement, 13 Jul 02

    • Stealthy, Survivable• Transport of 13 Troops & Equipment• Launch on Demand• Unrefueled transport• No overflight restrictions• VTVL

One CONOPS

HTV-3 Technology

Multiple Boost Options

Multiple Stage Options

High AOA High Altitude Reentry over Target Minimizes Overflight & Noise

Booster RTLS

VTVL Egress Option Suborbital Hop

First Order Assessment

Insertion Very Viable – Egress Requires Very High Mass Fraction


High mass fraction lander notional design concept weights

High Mass Fraction Lander NotionalDesign Concept & Weights

Strap On Drop Tanks Augment performance if Required

Composite LOX Tank

Avionics Rack/Low Cost GN&C

Payload Bay

(9’ x 14’)

Composite JP-8 Tank

Control surfaces for high AOA flight

Modified Production RD-0124 Engine


Team extraction approaches powered options

Team Extraction ApproachesPowered Options

  • Self Extraction – Powered

    • Limited Range of 300-1000 nm Initially

  • Insertion Vehicle Pick Up Via Aircraft

    • Boost to aircraft rendezvous – snag and tow

    • Boost to parasail glide – snag and tow

    • Deploy balloon from ground – snag and tow


Marine operations using space transportation

Upper Stage Landing Vehicle Release Marine Space Transportation OptionLimited Range Space Insertion & Extraction

  • RLV Upper Stage Releases Aerodynamic Descent, Parafoil Final Descent, Landing Vehicle

  • Upper Stage Recovers to Forward Location for Refueling

  • Parafoil Makes Final Descent and Landing

    • Stealthy insertion

    • Expendable landing vehicle

  • Upper Stage Extracts Team

    • Recovers in-theater

    • High L/D upper stage for extra range

    • ~1000 nm radius

Technology Implications

Very High Mass Fraction Upper Stage Needed

High L/D Upper Stage Needed

Very Lightweight Landing Vehicle Needed

Landing Vehicle Gives Flexibility

Aerodynamic Cross-Range Useful

Stealthy Arrival

Good Radius of Action

Do Not Have to Defend Landing Vehicle


Marine operations using space transportation

Hypersonic Airbreathing Marine Space Transportation OptionsNear Space Revolutionary Improvements to Terrestrial Aviation Capabilities

  • Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV)

    • Mach 10-12 HTVL airbreather

  • Launch from CONUS or Forward Deployment Base

    • Diego Garcia, Guam possibilities

  • ~ 9000 nm Round Trip

    • ~ 1 hr flight time including acceleration, deceleration

    • Segments can be optimized for scenario, ROE

  • Insert Team

    • Approach not stealthy

  • Remain with Team or Depart to Safe Area

    • Potential integral DE fire support

  • Extract Team

    • Limit on extraction range likely T/W for vertical landing and T/O

Technology Implications

High Mass Fraction Needed

High L/D Needed

Advanced TPS Needed

Efficient Propulsion Needed

HCV is Really Fast Aircraft


Hybrid airbreathing rocket marine space transportation options

Hybrid Airbreathing-Rocket Marine Space Transportation Options

Revolutionary Improvements to Terrestrial Aviation CapabilitiesLimited Range Space Insertion and Extraction

  • HCV with RLV Upper Stage

    • RLV VTVL

  • HCV Flies by or Over Target Area

    • Strategy determined by politics and threat

  • RLV Stage Separates and Lands

    • Short range flight preserves RLV propellants

  • RLV Remains or Departs to Safe Location

    • Integral DE fire support possible

  • RLV Extracts Team In-Theater

    • Extraction range 1000 nm+

  • Out of Box Extraction Idea

    • RLV rejoins with another HCV for extraction

Technology Implications

High Mass Fraction Needed

High L/D Needed

Advanced TPS Needed

Efficient Propulsion Needed

Hybrid Airbreathing and Rocket Stages


On orbit refueling marine space transportation option space insertion extraction with refueling

On-Orbit Refueling Marine Space Transportation OptionSpace Insertion & Extraction With Refueling

  • TSTO Orbit-Capable RLV with VTVL Upper

    Stage

  • Upper Stage Refueled On-Orbit

    • Could also add external/conformal propellant tanks on-orbit

  • Short On-Orbit Loiter of 24-72 hrs Possible

  • Upper Stage Deorbits and Inserts Team

    • Only landing propellant used during insertion

  • Integral DE Fire Support Possible

  • Upper Stage remains and Extracts Team

    • Only landing propellant used during insertion

  • External/Conformal Tanks Burned First and Jettisonned

  • Range 2-4000 nm, Possibly Intercontinental with Evolved High Mass Fraction Upper Stage

  • Space Basing a Possibility

    • Physiological effects on Marines need studying

Technology Implications

High Mass Fraction stages Needed

High L/D Upper Stages Needed

On-Orbit Refueling Offers

Several Advantages


Ssto conus conus marine space transportation option space insertion extraction without refueling

SSTO CONUS-CONUS Marine Space Transportation OptionSpace Insertion & Extraction Without Refueling

  • VTVL SSTO RLV

    • Rocket Powered or Combined Cycle Airbreathing

  • CONUS Insertion, CONUS Extraction

    • Round trip 1-4 hours flight time

  • Noise and Other Signature Reductions

    • Stealthy ingress and egress

  • Integral DE Fire Support

    • Lasers, EM weapons

    • Stun technologies

    • Other non-lethal techniques

    • Non-lethal picket fence protection

  • Requires Much Better Propulsion and/or Structures than exist today

  • Limited duration space basing is possible

Technology Implications

Revolutionary Propulsion

or

Ultra-Lightweight Structures Needed

Evolutionary Changes Lead to

Development of Revolutionary Technologies


Stepping stones to marine capability

Stepping Stones to Marine Capability

  • CAV Being Developed by DARPA Falcon Program and AFSPC

  • HCV Being Developed by DARPA Falcon Program, AFRL, and NASA (X-43, etc.)

  • RLV First Stage Being Developed by AFSPC/SMC/AFRL Advanced Reusable Spacelift (ARES) Program

  • RLV Upper Stage Program Could be DARPA/AFRL Hot Eagle Program

    Recommendation

  • Corps Support for Falcon, ARES, and Hot Eagle as Initial Stepping Stones to Capability to Place a Marine Squad Anywhere on the Globe in Two Hours

Stepping Stone Programs All Funded ExceptHot Eagle Reusable Upper Stage Program


Hot eagle recommendation

Hot Eagle Recommendation

  • Biggest Common Technology Need for Upper Stages is High Mass Fraction Airframe / Structure

  • High Mass Fraction Stages Enable Bimese, Heavy-Lift, Hybrid Airbreathing and Eventually SSTO Concepts

  • DARPA/AFRL Hot Eagle RLV Upper Stage Program Should Emphasize High Mass Fraction

  • High Mass Fraction Gives Higher Performance, Larger Payload, Longer Extraction Range for Marine Applications

  • High Mass Fraction Allows Smaller and Less Expensive Upper Stages to Provide Same Capabilities as Larger, More Expensive Lower Mass Fraction Stages

High Mass Fraction Benefits All Space Concepts


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