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Introduction to Biology. Unit 1: The World of Life Chapter 1: The Science of Biology. Mr. Grivensky and Mr. Rutkoski . Biology as a Science. Science is a process of thinking and learning about the world around us Biology is the study of the science of Life. What is Life?.

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Introduction to biology

Introduction to Biology

Unit 1: The World of Life

Chapter 1: The Science of Biology

Mr. Grivensky and Mr. Rutkoski


Biology as a science
Biology as a Science

  • Science is a process of thinking and learning about the world around us

  • Biology is the study of the science of Life


What is life
What is Life?

  • Defining “Life” or “Living” is not as easy as it may initially seem.

  • Even experts have a difficult time deciding if some things found in nature, such as viruses, are alive.


There are 5 basic characteristics that are common to all living things
There are 5 basic characteristics that are common to all living things

1. Made up of cells

2. Grow and develop

3. Obtain and use energy

4. Respond to their environment

5. Are able to reproduce


What is an organism
What is an Organism? living things

  • An organism is an individual living thing

  • Organisms have all 5 of the characteristics that define them as living


Hierarchy of life
Hierarchy of Life living things

Subatomic particle→ atom →molecule

organ system ← organ ← cell ← organelle

organism → population →community

biosphere ←ecosystem


Coral
Coral living things

  • Coral grows in colonies to form large reefs

  • They have tentacles that they use for the gathering of foodThey use energy for this and also use the energy in the food

  • Coral is a living thing because the individual organisms are made up of cells

  • Coral reefs grow each year because the individual corals that make them up reproduce to form new coral


Biology at different levels
Biology at Different Levels living things

  • Questions at the Chemical Level

  • What are the chemical compounds that make up coral and its’ skeleton?

  • A biochemist would look at how coral animals obtain calcium from sea water or how they process calcium to turn it into calcium carbonate


Questions at the molecular level
Questions at the Molecular Level living things

  • All living things contain a variety of molecules

  • A molecule is a chemical compound

  • Molecules:regulate the growth and developmenthelp the organism break down foodAid in removing wastes from the organismGive shape and texture to the organism’s body


Questions at the cellular level
Questions at the Cellular Level living things

  • How are the cells organized and how do they react?

  • How do the cells reproduce?


Questions at the organism level
Questions at the Organism Level living things

  • What controls the rate of reproduction?

  • How do different types of corals differ from each other?

  • How do corals interact with other organisms?


Questions at the population level
Questions at the Population Level living things

  • Population: all of the organisms of one type living in an area

  • How do corals interact with and affect their environment?


Questions at the global level
Questions at the Global Level living things

  • Is coral a global concern?

  • A coral reef is the largest structure in the world that living things assemble

  • The Great Barrier Reef, near Australia, is more than 2000 km long and over 100 km wide.

  • It can be seen from space!


The steps of the scientific method
The Steps of the Scientific Method living things

  • Claude Villee (a biologist) described the Scientific Method as “organized common sense”

  • Step 1: State a Specific Problem or Question based on observations of the natural world

  • Step 2: Propose a hypothesis:

    A hypothesis is a possible explanation


The steps of the scientific method1
The Steps of the Scientific Method living things

  • Step 3: Test the Hypothesis: Design a controlled experiment to check the hypothesis

  • Step 4: Analyze the Results: Review the results to determine if the hypothesis was correct or not. This may result in further testing.

  • Step 5: Repeat the Experiment


Control and variable
Control and Variable living things

  • In order to perform an experiment there must be at least 2 groups.

  • Control group: Serves as a benchmark to compare your results to.

  • Variable: The variable is the factor in the experiment that is different in one group. (The fertilized group would be the variable group)


Science and truth
Science and Truth living things

  • Scientific knowledge is changeable, based on new knowledge and experimentation

  • Spontaneous Generation Example


Theories
Theories living things

  • When repeated experiments consistently confirm a hypothesis, the hypothesis is considered valid

  • A theory is developed when a series of closely related hypotheses are grouped together to form a complete explanation of something in the Natural World.

  • The theory that certain diseases are caused by germs is an example

  • Theories are the best explanation that the process of science has produced to date.

  • Theories are subject to change as new experimentation is performed


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