Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities
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Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities. Examples of good practice in Flanders K. Paeschuyzen, L. Geeraerts & G. Lichtert 19 FEAPDA congress Geneva 14-16 October 2005. CONTENT. INTRODUCTION 1.1. A Brief Sketch 1.2. Classification according to social load

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Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

Examples of good practice in Flanders

K. Paeschuyzen, L. Geeraerts & G. Lichtert

19 FEAPDA congress

Geneva 14-16 October 2005


Content

CONTENT

  • INTRODUCTION

    1.1. A Brief Sketch

    1.2. Classification according to social load

    1.3.The place of group 3 within Maslow’s Pyramid

    1.4. Intercorrelation of the social load and the communicationgap


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

2. GOOD PRACTICE

2.1. Developing a theoretical founded framework

2.2. Searching for solutions in practice: 2 examples

2.2.a. Coping with group 2

2.2.b. A mothers’ group

2.2.c. Coping with group 3

2.2.d. A real life example of the family Bogdanovic

3. CONCLUSION


1 introduction

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 A brief Sketch

1.2. Classification according to social load

1.3. Maslow’ pyramid

1.4. Intercorrelation social load - communication


1 1 a brief sketch

1.1. A brief sketch

  • Jonghelinckshof is one of the six schools for the hearing impaired in Flanders.

  • 46% of the population is of Belgian origin

  • 54% come from dozen different countries

  • The population reflects the situation in the metropolis Antwerp: 50% of the children does not speak Dutch at home.

  • The intake of children of foreign origin started mainly in 2001.


Child characteristics hearing loss

Child characteristics Hearing Loss


Child characteristics additional inner child problems

Child characteristicsadditional inner child problems


Child characteristics type of additional inner problems

Child characteristics type of additional inner problems


Parental communication language understood

Parental communicationlanguage understood


Parental communication language used at home

Parental communicationlanguage used at home


1 2 classification according to social load

1.2.Classification according to social load

3 Groups:

  • Regular families

  • Socially loaded families

  • Socially seriously loaded families


Determing the social load

Determing the social load


Group 1 regular families

Group 1: Regular families

  • 54%

  • Mainly Belgian families

  • Few Moroccan and Turkish families

  • Good functioning in society

  • We can apply traditional working methods


Group 2 socially loaded families

Group 2: Socially loaded families

  • 19%

  • Mainly Moroccan and Turkish

  • Family members of first, second en third generation

  • Primary migration of workers to work in the mines

  • Noticeable when looking at the functioning of the families


Group 3 socially seriously loaded families

Group 3: socially seriously loaded families

  • 27%

  • Almost all are in an asylum or regularisation procedure

  • A matter of surviving


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

A combination of different factors forms a much heavier burden than the mere addition of the separate factors

  • insecure residence in Belgium

  • financial problems

  • not mastered the Dutch language

  • illiteracy


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

belonging to a stigmatised population group that gets fewer chances

Limited or no access to the basic social services such as medical care, child benefit, Public Centre for Social Welfare (OCMW)


1 3 the place of group 3 within maslow s pyramid

1.3. The place of group 3 within Maslow’s Pyramid

  • Out of necessity located in the bottom layer of the pyramid

  • Each day is a struggle for life or physiological needs


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

However we notice big differences in individual functioning of the families according to their situation in the country of origin

If the necessary residence documents are in order, it is more likely that a family will function at a higher lever in Belgium when they did so in their home country

Roma have been using surviving mechanisms for centuries. They have never acquired the required capacities to function at the hire levels.


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

School and therapeutic training are situated in the top layer of the pyramid: self actualisation.

It is a huge challenge to provide a supply for the children of this third group in the higher layers of the pyramid.


1 4 intercorrelation r s n 52

1.4. Intercorrelation rs (N= 52)

** p < .001


2 good practice

2. GOOD PRACTICE

2.1. Developing a theoretically founded framework

2.2. Searching for solutions in practice for the different groups


2 1 developing a theoretical founded framework

2.1. Developing a theoretical founded framework


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

Our traditional frames of reference and methods of assistance do not come up.

A number of initiatives were sponteaniously taken (communication in foreign languages, calling on interpreters and intercultural mediators, regular visits to the families, provision of financial contributions, starting a mothers’ group…)


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

  • Gradually we experienced the need to make new agreements within our institute (most pressing agreements about the collaboration with the audiologic department)


Agreements based on

Agreements based on

  • A theoretical framework in which we first clearly defined our new population and their problems by a number of parameters

  • A description of the legal instructions with regard to the refugee question

  • A set of guidelines with regard to the ethical methodical and practical matters


2 2 searching for solutions in practice 2 examples

2.2. Searching for solutions in practice: 2 examples


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

2.2.a. Coping with GROUP 2

2.2.b. mothers’ group for group 2

2.2.c. Coping with GROUP 3

2.2.d. A real life example of a family of group 3


2 2 a coping with group 2 in general

2.2.a. Coping with group 2 in general

  • Cooperatives with other organisations such as

    • home counseling

    • Interpreters & Intercultural mediaters

  • A few adjustments of our traditional working methods

    • Mothers’ group instead of a parents group


2 2 b a mothers group

2.2.b. A Mothers’ group


A mothers group

A Mothers’ group

  • Started in 2004-2005

  • 6 meetings in one school year

  • For the group of children in the nursery school Where most of the children of group 2 are in


New wine in a old barrel

New wine in a old barrel

  • We have already used the methodology of parents’ groups for years in the organisation

  • A couple of adjustments were needed to make the groups more accessible for our new population


Objectives

Objectives

  • A contact forum for parents

  • An exchange of experiences with regard to the handicap

  • Information exchange with regard to the handicap

  • A lower threshold to see the social worker as a contact person


Adjustments for the present population

Evening

Mothers + Fathers

Invitation by letter

The academic quarter of an hour

Morning

Only mothers

A personal invitation during house visits and by telephone

The Moroccan half an hour (opportunity for personal questions)

Adjustments for the present population


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

Only the social worker leads the group

Intercultural mediaters (interpret language and culture + experience with methodology)

Respect for religious customs and feasts

Mothers can bring their babies with them when there’s no child care


Results

Results

  • We brought six mothers together, from the first meeting on, there was a feeling of solidarity in the group

  • The testimonies of Deaf adults were very effective to reach the goal of informing the mothers. They have had a great influence on the mothers’ view on their child's deafness.

  • Experiences were mutually exchanged.

  • The relation with the social workers were strengthened. Mothers dare to ask their questions more easily.


2 2 c coping with group 3 in general

2.2.c. Coping with group 3 in general

  • No readymade solutions

  • Searching for good cooping:

    • Integral assistance package that goes beyond the boundaries of our school is necessary

    • Creating a relationship based on mutual trust with the home front

    • Giving as much stability as possible

    • Exempts from the cost

    • External motivation helps

    • Network development


2 2 d a real life example of a family of group 3

2.2.d. A real life example of a family of group 3


I brief introduction of the family

I. Brief introduction of the family

  • Family Bogdanovic

  • Roma from Bosnia

  • Fled because of acts of war, economic and social reasons

  • From Bosnia to Italy, Germany and ended up in Belgium

  • All family members are legally in Belgium

    except from father


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

  • Both parents are illiterate

  • though mother speaks Romanes, Serbo-Croatian, Italian and German

  • Father is often absent

  • Mother takes the care and responsibility for the family on herself


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

2

1

3

Familysystem

?

4

Indira

°2005

Segnia

°1991

5

1

Vesna

Juliano

°1983

Al Capone

°2003

2

3

Mother

°1964

draaibare

Elisabeta

°1985

Al Pacino

°2001

Rasema

°1989

Cobra

°1999

Father

°1965

Bosco

1

Genita

°1995

Nejib

°1991

Simone

°1993

2


Ii the concepts concerning the handicap vary from ours

II. The concepts concerning the handicap vary from ours

  • The handicap of the boys was received as less serious than that of the girl, because she will traditionally be married off.

  • Explanation for the disorder: Mother thinks she is to blame for the handicap. She found the suggestion that maybe there is something in the blood very strange.


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

Distrust of our medical ‘solutions’

Magical thinking: the family is mainly Islamic but goes on a pilgrimage in honor of the Madonna to resolve the hearing problem.

(another Roma family goes to a ‘miracle doctor)


Iii in our contacts 4 problem areas

III. In our contacts: 4 problem areas

Difficulties with regard to meeting the scholar conditions / Regular school attendance

Adjusting hearing aids / cochlear implant

Pedagogic work in a surviving environment;

Communication gap between parents and children and between parents, school and society as a whole.


1 difficulties with regard to meeting the scholar conditions regular school attendance because of

1.Difficulties with regard to meeting the scholar conditions / Regular school attendancebecause of


1 a insecurity of existence surviving attempts and nomadic existence

1.a. Insecurity of existence, surviving attempts and nomadic existence

  • An insecure residence statue

  • No stabile housing

  • No experience in handling school gear and clothing

  • Personal Hygiene does not meet our expectations


1 b the family does not have the school tradition we expect them to have

1.b. The family does not have the school tradition we expect them to have

  • Both parents have little school experience and are both illiterate

  • Experiences of discrimination and bullying at school

  • Afraid to let the children come to school because of their own negative experience

  • Distrust of the dominant culture because of negative experiences


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

The negative school experiences counterbalance the results

Although they want their children to learn how to read, write and calculate


1 c difficult access to the right services

1.c.Difficult access to the right services

  • Such as a school for the deaf children


1 d the high number of children and the specificity of the handicap

1.d. The high number of children and the specificity of the handicap

  • Makes that mother has a number of obligations to fulfill. It is impassible to fulfill all of them.


2 adjusting hearing aids cochlear implant

2.Adjusting hearing aids/cochlear implant


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

The nonchalance of dealing with the materials

The limited financial strength

The limited hygiene

The lack of stability within the family

The lack of clarity with regard to the family’s health insurance

The hearing aids are not consistently worn at home


Coping for the first two groups of problems

Coping for the first two groups of problems

  • We gradually introduced the school to the child

  • We created a relationship based on mutual trust with the child and with the home front to get more information


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

  • Boarding school to give as much stability and help as possible with regard to upbringing

  • Network development within the frame of special youth care

  • Working with external motivation


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

3.

The communication gap


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

Parents and child are not able to communicate with each other (not in Sign Language not in Dutch neither in another language)

Parents and the teacher and educators are not able to communicate with one another for the sake of the children


Coping for the communication gap

Coping for the communication gap

  • Child care obligated mother to follow a Dutch course.

  • For important conversations we invite interpreters: Serbo-Croatian for the mother and sign language for the child

  • For everyday matters we use a shared second language as German or Italian


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

  • No straightforward solutions, but it is more workable when using this means


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

4.

Pedagogic work in a surviving environment


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

The coming and going of the children disturbs the continuity within the class and the individual learning process of these children.

We try to teach the children values at school which the parents do not consider as important (such as wearing hearing aids, brushing teeth, working in an organised matter…


Coping

Coping

  • Adaption of the frames of reference is necessary:

  • The main aim is that the child comes to school and that the child can enjoy his school life

  • Before we can come to pedagogical working with the child it is necessary to support the context to create thereby as much stability as possible


Iv effects for the organisation

IV. Effects for the organisation

  • Adjusted agreements within our internal working with

    • the department audiology and

    • with regard to the financial contributions

  • Education with regard to working with Roma families and to rules for asylum seekers

  • Writing this agreements and knowhow down in a theoretical frame


3 conclusion

3. CONCLUSION


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

It is necessary to adjust ourselves every time to the new problems

We have to be able to let go the known and search in the unknown

First we tried to find concrete solutions in everyday life

but it became more and more necessary to adjust our working methods

We experienced the need of education in our search for solutions


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

It proved to be necessary to analyse the new problems thoroughly

We then tried to translate the new solutions into new agreements

Partnership with other organisations is essential

Above all: support from the board was an essential condition


Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities1

Education of deaf children from ethnic minorities

Examples of good practice in Flanders

K. Paeschuyzen, L. Geeraerts & G. Lichtert

19 FEAPDA congress

Geneva 14-16 October 2005


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