East Asia
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East Asia. Notice the large areas of low land and large areas of high land. The majority of East Asia’s populations live on the eastern plains. Influenced from the monsoons!. Winter Monsoon.

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East Asia

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East asia

East Asia

Notice the large areas of low land and large areas of high land. The majority of East Asia’s populations live on the eastern plains.


East asia

Influenced from the monsoons!


East asia

Winter Monsoon

Summer winds blow from the south and southwest across the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal and bring warm wet air.

Winter winds blow from the north and northeast across the continent and bring dry cool air.

Summer Monsoon


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Western areas less populated because the terrain and climate are harsh. As need for resources increases – people will move to areas with resources in western China.

Many rivers in the region makes hydroelectric power economically feasible.

Japan does not have large amounts of many resources – no oil. Desire for resources was one reason for Japanese imperialism and colonization.

Terrace Farming


Culture

Culture

  • Yellow River (Shang Dynasty) is the culture hearth for this region.

  • Life in rural areas is much different than the modern cities: Hong Kong, Macau, Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou.

  • Japan is more urban than the rest of East Asia.

  • Chinese invented paper, gunpowder, printing, and the compass.

  • Closed to outside influences until 1800s.

  • Often the society is more important than the individual.


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Ethnic Groups – the largest is the Han Chinese. North & South Korea (Korean) and Japan (Japanese) people are homogeneous (almost all the same ethnic group). The majority of people in Mongolia are Kazakhs (from Kazakhstan) – Steppe climate.


Governments

Governments

  • China is a one-party state. Democracy is on the rise, but has been met with harsh punishments.

  • Japan is a constitutional monarchy

  • North Korea has a dictatorship

  • Mongolia is a republic (after the fall of the USSR – it had been communist one-party state supported by USSR)

  • South Korea is a republic, but many citizens complain that is run by an aristocracy (elite families)


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  • 700-600 BC - The Great Wall of China – Wall built to protect China from outside invasion. Took over 100 years to build.

  • Three Gorges Dam. Completed in 2009 - the world’s largest dam. Located on the Yangtze River. Benefits: It produces 18 million kw of power (equal to 18 nuclear power plants) Produces 20% of China’s power and controls floods. Disadvantage: However, over 2 million people had to be relocated and thousands of ancient sites were submerged.


Technology

Technology

  • Innovations in protecting against natural disasters

  • Bullet train

  • Computer and electronics

  • Japanese have invented / improved items to fit lifestyle (better gas, smaller appliances)

  • Japan has very strict pollution laws – China does not.


Languages

Languages

Han is the most spoken language in China. There are two dialects – Mandarin and Cantonese. There is NO language called Chinese.

Unlike western languages that use letters for sounds – Han uses ideograms – pictures or symbols that stand for ideas.

Calligraphy – the art of beautiful writing was started in East Asia.

Cantonese

Mandarin


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2010 Population:

Population

  • China has 1.347 billion people. (19.25% of world population)

  • India has 1.210 billion people. (17.29% of world population)

  • The US has 313 million people. (4.47% of world population)

  • Because of the large population & limited resources - China began the “One Child Policy” in 1979. It limits each family to one child. Families are fined for extra children. It is enforced more in the urban areas. The western regions are not subject to this policy because the Chinese encourage Chinese to move to these regions to weaken the minority populations.


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Tibet:

Tibet was an ancient country the size of Western Europe when it was invaded by the People’s Republic of China in 1950. Tibet has a unique culture, history, and identity. Not only have many Tibetans lost their lives, but Tibetans in Tibet do not enjoy basic human rights. The Chinese government has introduced policies by which Tibetan culture, language, and natural resources are being systematically eroded. The spiritual and cultural leader of the Tibetan people is the Dalai Lama. He escaped Tibet, and has traveled the world to raise support for an independent Tibet. The Dalai Lama is pursuing peaceful solutions to this situation, but the Chinese government refuses to discuss Tibet.


Sports

Sports

Short on space…

Japan – Sumo Wrestling

China – table tennis

Martial Arts

Tai Chi

Tae Kwon Do

Kung Fu

Tang Soo Do

Karate


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Music based on 5 tone scale with a melody, but no harmony

Kabuki theater – Japanese dance-drama (all male)

Calligraphy – art of beautiful writing

Architecture - Pagoda

ARTS


Religion

Religion

China practices communism which stifles religion.

Most Shinto are in Japan

Many Confucians & Taoist (way of life) also practice Buddhism (religion)

.7%

14%

6%

1.3%

47%

8%

23%


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Taiwan

  • Democratic nation supported by the US, but not officially recognized. China wants it back – claims it is a province of China.

  • One China Policy allows us to keep relationships with both countries. One China – a democratic China.

  • The Republic of China created in 1912 on the mainland of China. Chiang Kai-Shek army lost to the communists in China’s civil war and retreated to Taiwan in 1949.


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North Korea

  • Communist country on the Korean Peninsula

  • Separated at the 38th parallel (DMZ) after Korean War

  • claims to have nuclear weapons.

  • Ruled by dictator Kim Jong Il until his death last year. His youngest son Kim Jong Un is now in charge.

  • Average North Korean lives on 60 cents a day.


Economy

Economy

Japan is a MDC (More Developed Country) main economic activities are tertiary and quaternary

China, Taiwan and South Korea are NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) – manufacturing is the main economic activity.

Mongolia and North Korea are LDCs (Lesser Developed Countries) the main economic activity is agriculture.

APEC – formed in 1989 - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Group: Working toward free trade markets. China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan are all members.


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South Asia


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Winter Monsoon

Summer winds blow from the south and southwest across the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal and bring warm wet air.

Winter winds blow from the north and northeast across the continent and bring dry cool air.

Summer Monsoon


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Human Characteristics

Population:

  • 1.65 billion people – 1/5 of the world live in South Asia

  • Population density is seven times the world average.

  • The population of South Asia is expected to double by 2025

Language:

  • Hundreds of languages – 19 major languages.

  • Most in Northern India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan speak Indo-European languages.

  • Hindi is spoken by half of India’s population.

  • Urdu is the main language in Pakistan

  • Bengali is the main language in Bangladesh

  • The ancient Sanskrit –classical Aryan languages is still used for religion.


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Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism all started in South Asia.

Religion:

  • India – Most Indians are Hindu.

  • Pakistan – Most Pakistanis are Muslim

  • Bangladesh – Most Bangladeshis are Muslim. This country was once called East Pakistan

  • Sri Lanka – Buddhist Sinhalese are the majority, but Hindu Tamils have been fighting for independence since the early 1980’s.

  • Bhutan and Nepal – most of the people are Buddhist.

Caste System

Rigid social system that classifies members of Indian society based on birth into one of these groups. Each caste has specific rules about behavior. You could not move from one group to another. Officially abolished in 1947 it is still evident in some parts of Hindu society in India.


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Government:

  • India – World’s largest (population) democracy. Socialist (central planning until recently)

  • Pakistan – democracy, but since 1971 military rule.

  • Bangladesh – democracy.

  • Sri Lanka – democracy, but Tamils claim discrimination and want independence.

  • Bhutan and Nepal – monarchies.

Ethnic Groups:

  • Similar to languages – there are hundreds (over 500) small ethnic groups in South Asia. Most people either define themselves by their country, religion, or jati (job / class)


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Agriculture:

  • Most people of South Asia are rural. They live in villages and farm, life has changed little for hundreds of years. Farms are divided among children, so every generation the farms are smaller. Most farms are less than an acre.

  • 60% are subsistence farmers.

  • Farming is low-tech and labor intensive – many people, human power.

More Agriculture:

  • Nepal & Bhutan – terrace farming uses up all available arable land.

  • Pakistan – fruit orchards in highland valleys.

  • North India & Bangladesh – water above knees – grow rice. Second (China #1)

  • Sri Lanka –huge tea, rubber, and coconut plantations set up by the British & Dutch use high-tech methods. When colonists left, kept plantation system 75% of Sri Lanka is cash crops – crops for sale or trade rather than food to feed people.

  • Challenge is how to balance cash crops with needs of the people.

  • Key cash crops are tea, cotton, spices and jute – fiber for making string and cloth.

  • Food crops – major food crop of South Asia is rice. Wheat, millet, corn, and peanuts are also grown.


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  • Education and government efforts have increased productivity.

  • Since 1960’s, crops have diversified and yield has increased, but irrigation and fertilizers are expensive.

  • Carefully manages irrigation, fertilizers, and high yielding variety of crops.

GREEN

REVOLUTION

  • Animals: Religions of the area promote respect for all living things. Some animals: elephants, water buffalo, monkeys, crocodiles, Bengal tigers, blue sheep, and snow leopards have all been or are on the endangered species list. Many are in danger from deforestation and loss of habitat. Animal reserves have been set up, along with laws controlling hunting and logging, but poaching – illegal hunting is still an issue.

  • Lack of clean water is another serious issue. India (the most developed nation in the region) still has 80% of its people without access to sanitation.

  • Deforestation – has caused serious soil erosion problems, so reforestation efforts are widespread across South Asia.

OTHER

ISSUES


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Kashmir & Jammu:

The area of Kashmir is 65% administered by India and 35% by Pakistan. The state is predominately Muslim & Sikh. Both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and tensions are high between the two nations. The area is also close to Afghanistan’s badlands where al-Qaeda operatives train. US thought Osama bin Laden was hiding there. Islamic fundamentalists active in Afghanistan would like to spread their influence into this area. India has cracked down on the insurgency that may be backed by Pakistan


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Balochistan

The Balochistan conflict is an ongoing conflict between Baloch nationalists and the Governments of Pakistan & Iran over issues ranging from human rights abuses, more autonomy, more royalties and secession.

Shortly after Pakistan's creation in 1947, the Pakistan Army invaded Balochistan which did not want to become part of Pakistan. Under British rule they had been autonomous. Both Pakistan and Iran have crushed any attempts by separatists.

Balochistan is one of Pakistan’s poorest regions although it has vast natural resources. Many support the Taliban in Afghanistan.


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TODAY

Both Pakistan and India have had nuclear weapons since 1998.

For 40 years after independence, India was led by the Nehru family. Mohandas, Indira and Rajiv Gandhi were all assassinated due to ethnic unrest in India.

Outsourcing – moving parts of a company’s operation to another location. When US says outsourcing we usually refer to moving operations overseas. India and Pakistan have benefited from English as a second language. Many IT support jobs and telephone call centers are located in South Asia. Textiles and machine parts have also relocated. India is a NIC – Newly Industrialized Country – main economic activity is manufacturing. Main factor – cheaper labor. It is cheaper to ship raw cotton from the USA to south and southeast Asia to make jeans and ship them back than it is to make them here. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X2HPSzz2IfA


Architecture

Architecture

Taj Mahal – Agra, India. Built by a Muslim Emperor as a tomb for his beloved wife. Islamic style with Hindu influences

Golden Temple – Amritsar is the holy Sikh temple

New Delhi – western style government buildings and roads. Adjacent to historic Delhi where there are mosques, forts, and bazaars.


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Economics – today in South Asia:

India has a stock market and some people can buy land, but it is very expensive. The government owns many of the large industries and has 5-year plans to manage what is needed. There is some government assistance programs, but they do not benefit all the people. India is a NIC

Pakistan & Bangladesh have similar systems, but much more government control than India. Pakistan is and LDC, but moving toward a NIC (if they can keep the military out of the government). Bangladesh & Sri Lanka are poor with little infrastructure - LDC.

Nepal & Bhutan are absolute monarchies and the government controls most of the economic decisions. The people are poor and are subsistence farmers. Many of the people practice traditional lifestyles and have traditional economies. Overall these countries are LDCs. In the Maldives items are very expensive because they must be shipped in. – most of the citizens are subsistence farmers and practice a traditional lifestyle.


Arts sports

Arts & Sports

  • Sports – Cricket & Soccer brought by the British

  • bronze

  • Bollywood – world’s largest movie industry based in Mumbai (Bombay) makes movies for Asian markets

  • Storytelling

  • Textiles – embroidery, silk work


Population pyramids

Population Pyramids


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Today

  • Countries in SE Asia need to industrialize. There is a need for sustainable development. It is hard for the countries to balance industrialization and protecting the environment. It is hard to enforce the laws against poaching and logging. Soil erosion and deforestation are also serious environmental issues.


Culture1

Culture

  • Chinese-style pagodas and Indian-style Wats (temples) are common

  • Borobudur – 800AD

  • Laquerware & batik are art types

  • Legong – Bali


Governments1

Governments

  • Republics – East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore

  • Constitutional Monarchs – Brunei, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Thailand

  • One-Party Communist State – Vietnam & Laos

  • Dictators - Myanmar


Languages1

Languages

Major language families:

Malayo-Polynesian

(Austronesian)

Sino-Tibetan

Mon-Khmer

European influences


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Papua / Irian Jaya:

Also known as Irian Jaya, was told by the Dutch that they could have independence when they left the colony. The following year, Indonesia invaded the area. The Free-Papua movement has been fighting a secessionist battle ever since. Indonesia has stationed a large military presence in order to quell violence. The local people are mainly Christian and Animists and have been in conflict with the Indonesian Muslim government. In 2001, Indonesia tried to appease Papua by allowing them to keep more of the profits from its sale of minerals and agricultural products, but the conflict still remains.


Southeast asia religions

Southeast Asia Religions


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SE Asian nations are mostly in the medium HDI category except for Brunei (oil wealth) and Singapore (free port) and Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia which are low HDI.

Malaysia, Thailand, and Philippines are NICs. Indonesia is sometimes listed as a NIC.

Many MDCs outsource work to SE Asia for the purpose of saving money on labor costs.

Technology and communications in this region depend on the country’s level of technology. Singapore and Brunei have very advanced communications and transportation, but Laos and Cambodia have very little access to technology.


Asean

ASEAN

  • ASEAN – Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a free trade agreement between Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore Thailand, Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Its aims are economic growth, social progress, cultural development, regional peace, and opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully


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Arts

Variety of instruments – bamboo and bronze used to make instruments

Dances tell folk stories

Lacquerware

Architecture – mix of Indian & Chinese.

Borobudur is massive shrine built to symbolize Buddha’s journey to enlightenment


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