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Joint Approaches to Capacity Development : Reflections and Analysis Presentation by H.E. Pok ThanSecretary of State, MOEYS and M. Ratcliffe, Consultant LENCD Forum, Nairobi, October 3 - 5, 2006. Kingdom Of Cambodia Ministry Of Education, Youth and Sport.

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Joint Approaches to Capacity Development :

Reflections and Analysis

Presentation by

H.E. Pok ThanSecretary of State, MOEYS and

M. Ratcliffe, Consultant

LENCD Forum, Nairobi, October 3 - 5, 2006

Kingdom Of CambodiaMinistry Of Education, Youth and Sport

Development Transition : Three Phases

  • 1979 - 1993 :System Restoration. CD driven by community demand to restore schools

  • 1994 - 1999 :Donor-led Reconstruction. CD impetus from donors priorities, mainly teacher training

  • 2000 - 2005 :Development Partnership. CD impetus from disappointing sector performance and joint CD action matrix

Main Features : 1979 - 1993

  • Joint approach, through small MOEYS team and community groups

  • Donors hands-off, Eastern bloc presence not primarily developmental

  • Informal, iterative planning, due to unpredictable, voluntary, sector financing

  • CD focus, learning by doing and little formal training

  • Monitoring / Accountability, through politically-oriented National Education Congress

Main Features : 1994 - 1999

  • Joint approach, attempted through education investment plan 1994 / 99, with management targets

  • Donors dominated, through selective cooperation on specific CD programs

  • CD planning tensions, between previous informal approaches and growing formality demanded by donors

  • CD focus, mainly staff training and logistical support, limited organizational development

  • Monitoring / Accountability, through parallel systems, through NEC for MOEYS and project monitoring for donors

Mixed CD Impact : 1994 - 1999

  • Growing MOEYS confidence, through strong Ministerial leadership and some donor trust

  • Selective organizational development focus, especially for textbooks and teacher training services

  • Limited ownership of CD framework, targets and strategies not fully internalized or committed to

  • Unclear institutional framework, with MOEYS powers and organizational structure not fully approved

  • Donor territorialism, undermined mutual trust and confidence in joint approach

  • Capacity draining, due to proliferation of parallel PIUs

Main Features : 2000 - 2005

  • Joint approach, through ESP / ESSP, with stated CD targets and timeframes

  • Genuine partnership, based on growing shared commitment and mutual trust

  • Patient CD planning process, took two years to ensure sufficient CD assessment and understanding

  • CD focus, shift to key MOEYS organizational assessment and plans

  • Monitoring / Accountability, through joint CD policy action matrix and annual ESP / ESSP review process

Improving CD Impact : 2000 - 2005

  • Significant legislative and regulatory development, incorporating MOEF support

  • Improved organizational efficiency, especially planning, information, personnel and financial management

  • Substantial sector performance improvement, acting as confidence booster and change dynamic

  • Stronger MOEYS strategic and organizational leadership, with TA role shifting to mentoring and coaching

  • Promising CD sustainability, with growing internal and external demand and increased MOEYS resource allocations

  • Improving sector performance, acted as self reinforcing change dynamic

Sector Performance Impact, 2000/05

Baseline 2000 = 100, table shows percentage change

Organizational Assessment, 2005 : Information Department

Ratings : 1 = virtually non existent, 3 = operating with difficulties, 5 = operating very well

Key Lessons Learned

  • High level leadership is critical, including sustained MOEF support

  • A well-defined policy and institutional framework is vital

  • An inclusive SWAp type process can help, including formal donor signing up

  • Patient CD planning is essential

Key Lessons Learned, Cont...

  • CD implementation must be phased, to avoid system overload

  • Harmonizing internal and external CD monitoring / accountability needs to be recognized

  • Frontloaded TA for sector planning helps CD roadmap development

  • Policy / strategy TA role and expected outcomes need to be defined carefully


  • Sustainability of joint approach is likely but potential risks remain

  • Implementation of education law and regulations are critical for CD sustainability

  • Lack of confidence and qualified staff at sub-national level constitutes major risk

  • Greater monitoring of organizational outcomes needed to provide feedback on next phase of CD planning / implementation

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