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Drugs: Analysis. Summary. Analysis of Chemical Drugs Instrumental Examination Botanical Examination. Chemical Examination. White Powder or Pills. What are they?. Drugs > Chemical Exam. 3 steps in processing unknown chemicals:. Screening step . Sample preparation step .

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Drugs: Analysis

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Drugs analysis l.jpg

Drugs: Analysis


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Summary

  • Analysis of Chemical Drugs

  • Instrumental Examination

  • Botanical Examination


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Chemical Examination

White Powder or Pills

What are they?


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Drugs > Chemical Exam

3 steps in processing unknown chemicals:

  • Screening step

  • Sample preparation step

  • Confirmatory test


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Color Test

  • Small amount of chemical in spot plate

  • Drop of color changing reagent added

  • Color change noted


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Color Test

  • Several tests done at same time.

  • Adulterants or diluents may affect color


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Microcrystal Test

  • Small amount of sample dissolved in solution.

  • Test reagent added; contains another chemical that reacts with drug.

  • Insoluble crystal formed.


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Microcrystal Test

  • Shape of crystal suggests type of drug.

  • Impurities may cause unusual crystal formation.


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

  • Dot of drug placed at bottom of paper or thin silica plate

  • Bottom dipped in solvent; solvent diffuses up plate

  • Solvent carries drug up paper; distance depends on drug


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

  • Different solvents result in different distances

  • Some systems include color change components


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

UV Spectroscopy

  • Sample dissolved in liquid; placed in cuvette.

  • A range of UV light wavelengths are passed through solution.

  • Some light will pass through; some light will be absorbed


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

UV Spectroscopy

Different drugs create a different pattern


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Gas Chromatography

Similar to TLC; different chemicals will move at different rates through a capillary.


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Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Gas Chromatography

The time it takes to pass through the capillary gives an indication of which drug it is.


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Botanical Examination

With botanical evidence, additional steps can be added to the screening process.


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Drugs > Botanical Exam

Marijuana

  • Macroscopic Exam: Leaf and stem structure

  • Microscopic Exam: Tiny hairs on leaf surface


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Drugs > Botanical Exam

Marijuana (Resin ID)

Color test:

Tests for chemical THC

TLC:

Tests for chemical THC


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Drugs > Botanical Exam

Peyote

Macroscopic Exam:

Look for cotton-like tufts

Test for alkaloids:

TLC & Gas chromatography

Confirming mescaline not necessary


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Drugs > Botanical Exam

Mushrooms

Macroscopic Exam:

Can identify mushrooms that contain psilocybin

Screen for psilocybin:

Color test, TLC, and UV spectroscopy

Confirmed with MS and IR spec (later slides)


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Drugs

Screening Summary

  • All screening tests give an indication of what the drug is.

  • Since some drugs behave alike during screening tests, confirmation of the drug type is needed.


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Drugs

Sample Preparation

  • In many cases, the identity of the drug must be confirmed for prosecution.

  • Before identification, it must be separated from other chemicals in the mixture


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Drugs > Sample Preparation

Sample Preparation (Separation)

Physical Separation: particles are separated based on microscopic appearance.

Dry Wash or Dry Extraction

Dry Wash: Liquid dissolves adulterants; solid drug left behind

Dry Extraction: Liquid dissolves drug; solid adulterants left behind


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Drugs > Sample Preparation

Sample Preparation (Separation)

  • Liquid/Liquid Extraction:

    • Entire sample dissolved in aqueous (water) liquid

    • Organic liquid (oil-like) mixed with solution

    • Organic liquid removes adulterants

    • Sample remains in aqueous layer


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Confirmation Techniques

Heroin?

Confirmation identifies the specific type of drug.


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Drugs > Confirmation

Mass Spectroscopy

  • MS will smash a molecule into pieces and measure the mass of the pieces.

  • Every drug will break in a unique way, creating a unique amount of pieces.


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Drugs > Confirmation

Mass Spectroscopy


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Drugs > Confirmation

Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Similar to UV spectroscopy, except a range of infrared light wavelengths are passed through a sample.

  • Some light passes through; some light is absorbed.


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Drugs > Confirmation

Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Different drugs = different patterns

  • Pattern is specific to one drug


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