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2014 Summer Institutes Level 3. FRMCA Level 2, Chapter 8 Desserts and Baked Goods. Session Objectives. Breads Identify and use common ingredients in baking. Calculate ingredient weights using baker ’ s percentages. Convert baking recipes to a new yield.

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2014 summer institutes level 3
2014 Summer Institutes Level 3

FRMCA Level 2, Chapter 8

Desserts and Baked Goods

session objectives
Session Objectives


  • Identify and use common ingredients in baking.
  • Calculate ingredient weights using baker’s percentages.
  • Convert baking recipes to a new yield.
  • Differentiate between lean doughs, rich doughs, sponge doughs, and sourdoughs, and give examples.
  • Mix yeast dough using the straight-mix method.
session objectives continued
Session Objectives continued

Breads continued

  • Prepare yeast breads.
  • Prepare different types of quick breads and cake batters.


  • Identify the functions of icings and determine which are best suited for different baked goods.
  • Describe and prepare steamed puddings and dessert soufflés.
session objectives continued1
Session Objectives continued

Desserts continued

  • Prepare pie dough using the 3-2-1 method.
  • Describe roll-in dough, phyllo dough, and pâte à choux.
  • Explain how chocolate is tempered.
  • Explain how crème anglaise, pastry creams, and Bavarian creams are made, and how they are used in desserts.
  • List guidelines for plating and presenting desserts.
baking ingredients
Baking Ingredients
  • Strengtheners provide stability and ensure that the baked item does not collapse once it is removed from the oven.
  • Eggs and flour are commonly used as strengtheners.
    • There are six popular types of wheat flour: all-purpose, bread flour, cake flour, durum flour, pastry flour and semolina.


baking ingredients continued
Baking Ingredients continued
  • Fats and shortenings make baked goods moist, add flavor, and keep the baked items fresh longer.
    • Butters and oils
  • Sweeteners add flavor and color to baked goods.
    • Sugars and syrups
  • Flavorings affect a baked item’s taste and color.
    • Vanilla and nuts
baking ingredients continued1
Baking Ingredients continued
  • Leaveners allow the dough or batter to rise.
    • Chemical: Baking powder, baking soda
    • Organic: Yeast
    • Physical: Steam
  • Thickeners, combined with the stirring process, determine the consistency of the finished product.
    • Cornstarch, flour, eggs


baking ingredients continued2
Baking Ingredients continued
  • Liquids: Water, milk, cream, molasses, honey, or butter
  • Additives: Food coloring


baker s measurements
Baker’s Measurements
  • Formulas are standardized recipes for bakery products.
  • Baker’s percentages can be used to express each ingredient as a percentage of the flour weight.
    • Flour always has a proportion of 100 percent, and the percentages of all other ingredients are calculated in relation to the flour.
  • The formula for baker’s percentages is:

Weight of ingredient ÷ (Weight of flour x 100%) = Percent of ingredient

  • Yield is the quantity or number of servings a recipe makes.


converting the yield
Converting the Yield
  • Use baker’s percentages to calculate the weight of any ingredient or convert the formula to a new yield.
  • To calculate the weight of a particular ingredient:
    • Change the ingredient percentage to decimal form by moving the decimal point two places to the left. (Example: 20% = 0.20)
    • Multiply the weight of the flour by the decimal to get the weight of the ingredient.


converting the yield continued
Converting the Yield continued
  • When the pastry chef is using 10 pounds of flour and the formula calls for 20% sugar, how much sugar by weight is needed?
    • Answer: 10 pounds flour x 0.20 = 2 pounds sugar


  • Check recipes carefully to determine if ingredients requiring sifting are to be scaled before or after sifting.
  • Sifting adds air to flour, cocoa, and confectioner’s sugar; removes lumps; and filters out any impurities.
types of dough
Types of Dough
  • Lean dough includes flour, yeast, water, and salt.
    • Chewy texture, crisp crust
  • Rich dough is made with the addition of shortening or tenderizing ingredients.
    • Cake-like texture
make up methods
Make-Up Methods
  • Straight dough: Combine all ingredients at the same time.
  • Sponge: Mix yeast, half the liquid, and half the flour, allow the dough to rise, and then add remaining ingredients.
    • Light texture, unqiue flavor
  • Sourdough: Begin with a starter.


making yeast breads
Making Yeast Breads

Ten basic steps for yeast breads:

  • Scaling ingredient
  • Mixing and kneading ingredients
  • Fermentation
  • Punching down
  • Portioning
  • Rounding
  • Shaping
  • Proofing (the final rise)
  • Baking
  • Cooling and storing


quick breads and cake batters
Quick Breads and Cake Batters
  • Quick breads can be prepared more quickly than yeast breads can.
  • Quick breads use chemical leaveners rather than organic ones, meaning that no rising period is needed.
  • A batter is a semi-liquid mixture that is thin and pourable.
  • Batters usually have more fat and sugar than a dough.
four methods for preparing quick breads and cake batters
Four Methods for Preparing Quick Breads and Cake Batters
  • Creaming method: Cream the fat and sugar together to produce a very fine crumb and a dense, rich texture.
  • Foaming method: Foam whole eggs, yolks, or whites to provide the structure for a cake with a light texture.
  • Straight-dough method: Combine all of the ingredients and blend them into a batter at once.
  • Two-stage method: Combine a softened or melted shortening with the dry ingredients. Then add and blend in half of the liquid. Gradually add the remaining liquid to the mixture; creates high-ratio cakes with a very fine crumb
  • Icings, or frostings, are sweet coatings for cakes and other baked goods.
  • Icings have three main functions:
    • Improve the keeping qualities of the cake by forming a protective coating around it.
    • Contribute flavor and richness.
    • Improve appearance.
  • Use heavy frostings on heavy cakes, and use light frostings on light cakes.


types of icing
Types of Icing
  • Buttercream: Fat (butter is best) and confectioner’s sugar icing that can be colored, flavored, or both. It is spread with a thin-blade spatula or piped from a bag.
  • Foam: Boiled sugar syrup icing
  • Fondant: A corn-syrup based, candy-type sheeting that is cooked, spread, and cooled and can be applied over a cake for a smooth finish that encases that cake
  • Fudge: A cooked chocolate confection that can be spread while warm. A brown-sugar variant without chocolate is called penuche.


types of icing continued
Types of Icing continued
  • Ganache is a rich mixture of chocolate and cream.
  • Glaze is an icing that is drizzled rather than spread or piped. It might harden a bit on the surface, but stays moist underneath.
  • Royalicing is a mixture of confectioner’s sugar and egg white that can be colored. It dries hard and smooth.


steamed pudding and souffl s
Steamed Pudding and Soufflés

Steamed puddings and dessert soufflés are made of batters that require special handling.

  • Steamed puddings are more stable than soufflés because of the greater percentage of eggs and sugar in the batter.
  • Soufflés are lightened with beaten egg whites and then baked. Baking causes the soufflé to rise like a cake. As the soufflé rises, the moisture evaporates and the light batter sets temporarily.


preparing pie dough
Preparing Pie Dough
  • The 3-2-1 method for creating pies is made of:
    • 3 parts flour
    • 2 parts fat
    • 1 part water (by weight)
  • Produces a flaky, crisp crust
  • Best when pastry flour is used, the dough is worked as little as possible, and the fat and liquid are cold
making pie dough
Making Pie Dough
  • Dissolve the salt in water.
  • Cut the fat into the flour.
  • Add the cold water and mix together.
making pie dough continued
Making Pie Dough continued
  • Chill the dough.
  • Turn the dough out onto a floured work surface.
making pie dough continued1
Making Pie Dough continued
  • Roll out the dough.
  • Cut the dough and fill the pie pan.
  • Bake or fill, add a top crust, and bake.
danish croissants and puff pastry
Danish, Croissants, and Puff Pastry
  • Roll-in dough: Used to create flaky, quality products; dough of shortening, flour and water is loosely blended and then rolled and folded
  • Phyllo dough: Often used to prepare baklava; requires rolling and stretching into a thin layer from a dough of flour, water, oil, and white vinegar (egg yolks are also sometimes used)
  • Pâte à choux: Combines water, butter, flour, and eggs to create a smooth batter; often used for cream puffs and profiteroles
tempering chocolate
Tempering Chocolate
  • Chocolate contains two fats that melt at different temperatures.
  • Tempering ensures that both fats melt smoothly, harden evenly, and shine well.
  • Place chocolate in a double boiler over water simmering at very low heat.
    • Heat the chocolate to 105°F.
    • Remove it from the heat; add more chocolate and stir until it reaches 87°F.
    • Heat it again to 92°F.
dessert sauces and creams
Dessert Sauces and Creams
  • Crème anglaise (vanilla sauce) is a classic accompaniment to soufflés and steamed puddings. It is light vanilla-flavored custard, made from milk, egg yolks, and sugar.
    • Overheated sauce can curdle or develop lumps
  • Pastry cream (crème pâtissière) has greater density than custard.
    • Cook eggs, sugar, flour or cornstarch , milk and/or cream together into a very thick, smooth mixture.
  • Bavarian cream is a delicate sauce made by combining three basic ingredients: vanilla sauce, gelatin, and whipped cream.


plating and presenting desserts
Plating and Presenting Desserts
  • Good plate presentation requires careful attention to colors, shapes, textures, and arrangement.
  • Guests eat first with their eyes, then their noses, and finally their mouths.
  • There are two areas of presentation technique: the food itself, and the plate, platter, or dish as a whole.


plating and presenting desserts continued
Plating and Presenting Desserts continued
  • When plating desserts, everything on the plate should be edible.
  • It is best to place dessert decoration in threes, because that tends to be appealing to the eye.