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Water in Emergencies. Session 11D Context Specific Scenarios (4 of 4) Arid and Semi-Arid Environments (ASALs). Water in Emergencies in the ASALs. Exercise: Identify the particular challenges to water provision in emergencies in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs or ‘drylands’)?.

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Water in emergencies

Water in Emergencies

Session 11D

Context Specific Scenarios (4 of 4)

Arid and Semi-Arid Environments (ASALs)

W11D


Water in Emergencies in the ASALs

Exercise:

  • Identify the particular challenges to water provision in emergencies in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs or ‘drylands’)?

S House / AAH-US

Underground tank (birkad), Kenya

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Complexity of the Drylands

  • Increasing frequency of the cycle of droughts in the ASALs

  • Coping capacity reducing – destitute communities on edges of towns

  • Traditionally complex systems of management of water & pasture

  • Management systems are changing

  • Complex land rights, land tenure systems

W11D


Complexity of the Drylands

  • Conflicts over water and pasture – between pastoral societies & between pastoral & agricultural communities

  • Increasing use of firearms

  • Climate change, environmental destruction

  • Power in pastoral societies & gender divisions

  • Pastoralism & pastoralist institutions in transition

  • Care needed not to create dependency

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Dryland Technologies

S House / WaterAid

S House / UNICEF

Artificial rock catchment, Kenya

Underground tank (birkad), Ethiopia

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Dryland Technologies

S House / WaterAid

S House / AAH-US

Managed water pan by the Karmor Women’s Group, northern Kenya

Pond, Tanzania

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Dryland Technologies

S House / WaterAid

Sub-surface dam, Kenya

S House / WaterAid

Traditional Maasai well, Tanzania

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MITIGATION

Normal

Stage

Drought Early Warning System (EWS)

RecoveryStage

Alert/Alarm

Stage

RECONSTRUCTION

PREPAREDNESS

Emergency

Stage

RELIEF

Drought Management Cycle

Arid Lands Resource Management project II, Office of the President, Kenya

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Good Practice Working in the Drylands

  • Focus on drought cycle management

  • Time to understand the context, communities & dynamics

  • Employ staff with background from the drylands

  • Specific attention on gender and the needs and priorities of women

  • Prioritise appropriate dryland technologies – minimise use of mechanised boreholes

  • Consider alternatives to community management – women’s groups, private ownership

W11D


Good Practice Working in the Drylands

  • Work with others to consider water for animals in an emergency context:

    • Ministry of Agriculture;

    • Pastoral network organisations & institutions;

    • Organisations who support livelihoods & animals

  • Be aware of:

    • Complexity of the drylands; traditional land & water management, ownership, use & patterns

    • Combination of needs for animals – food, water, salt

    • Importance of animals to pastoral societies - nutrition, health, well-being, spiritual / cultural needs, capacity to recover

    • Risks of changing migration patterns from mechanised boreholes & potential negative impacts - environment & conflicts

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Very useful resources…

  • IIRR, ACACIA & CordAid (2004) on ‘Drought Cycle Management; A toolkit for the drylands of the Greater Horn’:

    Book or CD purchased from:

    http://www.mamud.com/iirr_africa_pubs.htm

  • Nissen-Petersen, E et al (2006) a series of detailed publications on technologies for the drylands, funded by DANIDA on:

    • Water Surveys and Designs;

    • Water from Dry Riverbeds;

    • Water from Roads;

    • Water from Rock Outcrops;

    • Water from Roofs;

    • Water from Small and Dams

      Free hardcopy ordered or downloaded free from the website:

      www.waterforaridland.com

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