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Evolving Understanding of Pollutant Transport from Asia to North America. Richard (Tony) VanCuren Research Division, California Air Resources Board Department of Applied Science, UCD WRAP 5-23-06. TransPacific Transport to North America: The contradiction of gas and aerosol data. MOPITT CO

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Evolving understanding of pollutant transport from asia to north america
Evolving UnderstandingofPollutant TransportfromAsiatoNorth America

Richard (Tony) VanCuren

Research Division, California Air Resources Board

Department of Applied Science, UCD

WRAP 5-23-06


Transpacific transport to north america the contradiction of gas and aerosol data
TransPacific Transport to North America:The contradiction of gas and aerosol data

MOPITT CO

2000

TOMS Aerosol

April15-May6

1998


The april 1998 asian dust storms a natural experiment
The April 1998 Asian Dust Storms: a Natural Experiment

Image after Husar, R. B. et al.,

J. Geophys. Res. 106: 18,317 –18,330, 2000.


Asian dust is ubiquitous around the northeastern pacific
Asian Dust is UbiquitousAround the Northeastern Pacific

VanCuren & Cahill, 2002



Asian aerosol chemistry at western cordillera sampling sites
Asian Aerosol Chemistry at Western Cordillera Sampling Sites

  • Two Asian components:

    • Primary - Dust & combustion

    • Mass correlation 0.87 (<2.5um)

    • Secondary - Aged biomass smoke

    • Mass correlation 0.17 (<2.5um)

  • Mean Asian aerosol fraction:

    • 75% of Fines (<2.5 mm dia.)

    • 60% of Total (<10 mm dia.)

  • Principal Components from:

  • 1234 IMPROVE 24-hr filters

  • March - October 1988-1999

  • Crater Lake, OR and Mt. Lassen, CA

VanCuren, 2003


Aerosol composition march october transport season crater lake mt lassen

Dusty Asian Plume

Siberian(?) Biomass Smoke

Aerosol Composition March – October(Transport Season)Crater Lake / Mt. Lassen

  • Mean Asian fraction:

    • 75% of Fines (<2.5 mm)

    • 60% of Total (<10 mm)

COARSE

2.9 ± 1.9 mg/m3

FINE

3.8 ± 2.0 mg/m3

OTHER

CARBONACEOUS

SO4=

SOIL

NO3-



Trinidad head aerosol composition modes

Marine mode

Medium to coarse sea salt

(2-6 mg/m3)

Weak sulfur (.2-.4 mg/m3)

Continental mode

Coarse Si, Fe, Ca, Al, Na, K

Strong fine sulfur (1-2 mg/m3)

Mineral & reacted Na

Weak sea salt (.2-.6 mg/m3)

MARINE 5/19

CONTINENTAL 4/22

Trinidad Head Aerosol Composition Modes



Trinidad head trinity alps mauna loa continental aerosols al elemental ratios holmes zoller 1996
Trinidad Head, Trinity Alps, & Mauna Loa Continental Aerosols’Al - Elemental Ratios(Holmes & Zoller, 1996)

Trinidad Head

Trinity Alps


ITCT-2K2 Findings: 1 - Dominant Modes

Concordant Montane AerosolSingle dominant aerosol Asian origin confirmed by soil element profiles Concentration varies but continuously presentMBL Disconnects Coastal Site from Free TroposphereSea salt & local combustion – infrequent tropospheric mixing


ITCT-2K2 Findings: 2 - Air Mass Mixing State

Soil Mixing Model

Air Mass Influence


ITCT-2K2 Findings: 3 - Soil Mixing State

Diurnal oscillation of sources

Coarse - strong local sources and upslope transport

Fine - dominated by tropospheric fumigation



Regional aerosol chemistry feb 21 24 1996
Regional Aerosol Chemistry: EventsFeb 21 & 24, 1996

2/21/96

2/24/96


Back trajectories 2 24 96
Back-trajectories - 2/24/96 Events

Craters of the Moon

Bryce Canyon

Grand Canyon


Sample global model results
Sample Global Model Results Events

  • Cameron-Smith, P. et al., (2005), Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002, Internal Report Lawrence Livermore Lab

  • Holzer, M., T. M. Hall, and R. B. Stull (2005), Seasonality and weather-driven variability of transpacific transport, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D23103, doi:10.1029/2005JD006261.

  • Park, R. J. et al. (2004), Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15204, doi:10.1029/2003JD004473.

  • Heald et al. Transpacific transport of Asian anthropogenic aerosols and its impact on surface air quality in the United States, Submitted to J. Geophys. Res.


Cameron-Smith, P. Eventset al., (2005), Impact of Long-Range Dust Transport on Northern California in Spring 2002, Internal Report Lawrence Livermore Lab


Holzer, M., T. M. Hall, and R. B. Stull (2005), Seasonality and weather-driven variability of transpacific transport, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D23103, doi:10.1029/2005JD006261.


Holzer, M., T. M. Hall, and R. B. Stull (2005), Seasonality and weather-driven variability of transpacific transport, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D23103, doi:10.1029/2005JD006261.


Park, R. J., D. J. Jacob, B. D. Field, R. M. Yantosca, and M. Chin (2004), Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15204, doi:10.1029/2003JD004473.

“Bulk aerosol measurements from the DC-8 aircraft indicate that 40% of non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4=) on average was incorporated in dust particles [Jordan et al., 2003]….

“The observation shows strong outflow in the 0- to 5-km column. The model also shows an enhancement in that column but is lower than observations by up to a factor of 2.


Heald M. Chin (2004), Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy, et al. Transpacific transport of Asian anthropogenic aerosols and its impact on surface air quality in the United States, Submitted to J. Geophys. Res.


Concluding thoughts
Concluding Thoughts M. Chin (2004), Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy,

  • The coast ranges and Sierra-Cascade generally prevent Pacific marine boundary layer air from reaching the continental interior of North America.

  • TransPacific Transport is strongest in spring, but occurs year-round.

  • The free troposphere “background” aerosol contains “natural” desert dust, anthropogenic dust, and combustion products from Asia: ¼ soil; ¼ SO4=; 2/5 carbonaceous aerosol.

  • North-westerly winds associated with “clean air corridors” commonly carry Asian aerosols, thus the “clean 20%” in the West is significantly influenced by global pollution levels.

  • At “clean” western IMPROVE sites, as much as 3/4 of PM2.5 and 2/3 of Coarse Particles may come from Asia.

  • Emissions growth and control efforts in Asia may modify visibility in North America.


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