Animal agriculture and pathogens
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Animal Agriculture and Pathogens. Terminal Learning Objective: At the conclusion of this session, participants will identify locations in Georgia where specific threats to animal agriculture would have the greatest impact, recognize animal pathogens of concern to agriculture in Georgia,

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Animal agriculture and pathogens

Animal Agriculture and Pathogens


Animal agriculture and pathogens

Terminal Learning Objective:

At the conclusion of this session, participants will identify locations in

Georgia where specific threats to animal agriculture would have the greatest

impact, recognize animal pathogens of concern to agriculture in Georgia,

recognize BUDDIES - unusual signs in animals that may indicate serious

disease or agroterrorism, and describe protocol for handling and reporting

serious animal incidents.

Enabling Learning Objectives:

1.1Identify locations in Georgia where specific threats to animal agriculture would have the greatest impact.

1.2Recognize animal pathogens of concern to agriculture in Georgia

1.3Recognize BUDDIES - unusual signs in animals that may indicate serious

disease or agroterrorism.

1.4Describe protocol for handling and reporting serious animal incidents.

Slide 1-A


Objectives for participants

Objectives for Participants:

  • To identify locations in Georgia where specific threats to animal agriculture would have the greatest impact.

  • To become familiar with animal pathogens of concern to agriculture in Georgia.

  • To recognize BUDDIES, unusual signs in animals that may indicate serious disease or agroterrorism.

  • To become familiar with the protocol for handling and reporting serious animal incidents.

Slide 2


Georgia poultry

Georgia Poultry

ON AN AVERAGE DAY GEORGIA PRODUCES:

24.6 MILLION POUNDS OF CHICKEN MEAT

8.2 MILLION TABLE EGGS

5.7 MILLION HATCHING EGGS

Prepared by: Georgia Poultry Federation

Source: Georgia Agricultural Statistics Service

Slide 3


Animal agriculture and pathogens

Georgia Poultry & Eggs

$0 - $1,000,000

$1,000,000 - $10,000,000

$10,000,000 - $40,000,000

$40,000,000 - $100,000,000

$100,000,000 - $309,000,000

$4.8 Billion

Data source: 2004 Farm Gate Value Report,

Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development, The University of Georgia

Slide 4


Animal agriculture and pathogens

For Activity 2

Slide 5


All other animal production

All Other Animal Production

$0 - $3,000,000

$3,000,000 - $5,000,000

$5,000,000 - $10,000,000

$10,000,000 - $15,000,000

$15,000,000 - $50,000,000

$1.3 Billion

Data source: 2004 Farm Gate Value Report,

Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development, The University of Georgia

Slide 6


All other animal production1

All Other Animal Production

Data source: 2004 Farm Gate Value Report,

Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development, The University of Georgia

Slide 7


Georgia equine industry

Georgia Equine Industry

  • 2nd most valuable commodity in animal ag

  • 6th overall in farm gate value in Georgia

  • One of the fastest growing segments of Georgia agriculture

  • Over 1100 licensed facilities in Georgia

  • Mostly pleasure

Slide 8


Animal agriculture and pathogens

Cattle Industry

Source: Georgia Agricultural Statistics Service

Slide 9


Animal agriculture and pathogens

Milk Cows

Source:

Georgia Agricultural Statistics Service

Slide 10


Animal agriculture and pathogens

Swine

Slide 11


Companion animals

Companion Animals

  • Approximately 3,089,227 households in Georgia

  • 59% of these households own companion animals

  • Equals approximately 1.8 million pet owning households

  • Estimated economic impact of over 3 billion dollars annually

Slide 12


So what does it all mean

So What Does It All Mean?

  • Strong animal industry vital to economy

  • Close to states with strong animal industries

  • Many companion animals with close contact with humans

  • Could be target for animal diseases

  • Know diseases that are most likely threat

  • Know how they spread in order to control

Slide 13


What is a pathogen

What is a pathogen?

  • Pathogen is any biologic agent that causes disease

Slide 14


Classes of biologic agents

Classes of biologic agents

  • Viruses

  • Bacteria

  • Fungi

  • Protozoa

  • Parasites

  • Prions

All biologic agents are not pathogens!

Slide 15


Disease and host

Disease and Host

  • Disease: disruption of normal physiology, causing a negative effect on survival or fitness

  • Host: an infected animal or plant

Slide 16


Viruses the basics

Viruses – the basics

  • Smallest infectious thing – “non-living”

  • Composed only of a string of DNA or RNA and some protein

  • Can’t reproduce on their own – only increase in number inside living cells

  • Sometimes cause rupture of host cell, dissemination to other cells

Examples of viral diseases: the flu, common cold, measles, foot-and-mouth disease, SARS, AIDS, plum pox virus

Slide 17


Bacteria the basics

Bacteria – the basics

  • Microscopic, single-celled organisms

  • Smallest “living” thing

  • Also most numerous

  • Can survive on their own, can survive in soil

Slide 18


How bacteria cause disease

How bacteria cause disease

  • Interfere with normal functioning

  • Produce toxins

  • Form clumps that inhibit normal circulation

Example of bacterial disease: plague

Slide 19


Fungi the basics

Fungi – the basics

  • Plant-like organisms, but without chlorophyll

  • Live in dead or decaying organic matter – nature’s recyclers

  • Many plant diseases are caused by fungus diseases

Examples of fungal diseases: rusts, mildews, smuts, athlete’s foot, thrush

Slide 20


Protozoa the basics

Protozoa – the basics

  • Free-living single-celled organisms

  • Protozoa-contaminated food

  • Protozoa-contaminated water

    • Cryptosporidium in water supplies

Example of protozoal disease: stage of trypanosomes in the blood

Slide 21


Parasites the basics

Parasites – the basics

  • Parasites and hosts – parasite benefits, host is harmed

  • Parasites can be internal or external

Examples of parasitic diseases: “worms”, ticks, mites on animals

Slide 22


Parasites pests

Parasites – “pests”

  • Insects that feed on plants and animals

Examples of pests: boll weevil and screwworm

Slide 23


Prions the basics

Prions – the basics

  • The most unusual infectious agent

  • Consists of PROTEIN ONLY

  • Resistant to usual forms of sterilization such as chlorine, autoclaving, etc.

  • Cause specific brain diseases

    (Examples: scrapie,

    Mad Cow Disease,

    Chronic Wasting

    Disease, Human CJD)

Slide 24


Infectious and contagious

“Infectious” and “Contagious”

“Infectious” – any disease caused by a pathogen

“Contagious” – can spread directly from one human, animal or plant host to another

“Zoonotic” – can spread between humans and animals

Slide 25


Transmission of pathogens

TRANSMISSION of pathogens

  • Aerosol – spread through air

  • Direct Contact – spread by rubbing, biting, contact with fluids

  • Fomite – spread by contact with contaminated objects

  • Vector – spread by other organisms (biological vs. mechanical)

Slide 26


Incubation period

Incubation period

  • Time between infection and presence of clinical signs

  • Dangerous time when disease could spread without noticing it

  • Daily biosecurity practices are best prevention

Slide 27


How diseases could enter the u s

How diseases could enter the U.S.

  • Smuggled animals

  • Wild birds

  • Importation from a country where disease is not yet recognized

  • On people

Slide 28


Monkeypox virus

Monkeypox Virus

Slide 29


Classical swine fever netherlands

Classical swine fever, Netherlands

  • 8M hogs killed

  • $3.4B in losses

  • Entry via contaminated vehicle

Slide 30


Highly pathogenic avian influenza asia

Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Asia

  • Several hundred million chickens killed over past several years

  • Strain spreads to humans, cats, pigs

  • World Health Organization warns that pandemic is imminent

Slide 31


Animal agriculture and pathogens

Exotic Newcastle Disease - California

  • More than 4M birds depopulated

  • 4 states affected

  • 15,000 premises quarantined

  • 1,600 person task force

  • >$100M in containment costs

Slide 32


Pathogen lists and international controls

Pathogen lists and international controls

  • CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) list

  • World Organisation for Animal Health (a.k.a. OIE) list

Slide 33


Cdc category a biothreat agents

CDC Category A – Biothreat agents

Humans and Animals:

  • Anthrax

  • Plague

  • Botulism

  • Tularemia

  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers

    Humans Only:

  • Smallpox

Slide 34


Animal agriculture and pathogens

Fourth International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases

Atlanta, March 2004

"Three-fourths of the new diseases that have menaced mankind over the past 20 years, and 11 of the 12 most dangerous bioterrorism agents, are animal diseases that have gained the ability to infect humans.”

Slide 35


High consequence livestock pathogens

High Consequence Livestock Pathogens

  • Foot-and-mouth disease

  • Classical swine fever

  • Rift Valley fever

  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza

  • Exotic Newcastle disease

Slide 36


Foot and mouth disease

Foot-and-mouth disease

  • Caused by a virus

  • EXTREMELY contagious

  • SHORT incubation period

  • Salivation, lameness

  • LOST PRODUCTION

Slide 37


Classical swine fever

Classical swine fever

  • Caused by a virus

  • VERY contagious

  • Depression, diarrhea

  • Neurologic signs

Slide 38


Rift valley fever

Rift Valley fever

  • Caused by a virus

  • Spread by mosquitoes as vectors

  • Results in liver failure and abortions

  • Zoonotic - INFECTS HUMANS ALSO!

Slide 39


Highly pathogenic avian influenza

Highly pathogenic avian influenza

  • Caused by a virus

  • Spread by contact, aerosol

  • Swollen, hemorrhagic combs

  • Rapid death – approaching 100% death loss

  • Can be zoonotic –

    Some strains infect humans

Slide 40


Exotic newcastle disease

Exotic Newcastle disease

  • Caused by a virus

  • Spread by contact, aerosol

  • Depression, diarrhea, death

Slide 41


It pays to remember your buddies

It pays to remember your BUDDIES!

“BUDDIES” are unusual clinical signs in animals that may indicate serious disease or agroterrorism:

  • Blisters – mouth, nose, teats or hooves

  • Unusual ticks or maggots

  • Deaths/Downers – unusually high number of deaths or animals that can not rise and walk

  • Diarrhea

  • Illness (high number sick, high number of abortions)

  • Eating abnormally (will not eat)

  • Staggering – strange neurological signs, including spasms

Be aware of situations when both owners and animals are ill!

Slide 42


If you spot any of these clinical signs

If you spot any of these clinical signs:

Notify your local veterinarian!

If you cannot reach your local veterinarian or believe that any of these diseases exist, contact:

  • 404-656-3667 or 800-282-5852 (State Veterinarian)

  • 800-TRY–GEMA (Nights & Weekends)

  • 770-922-7860 (USDA Area Veterinarian in Charge -24/7)

Slide 43


Reference list for more information

Reference List For More Information

See Your Textbooks –

  • Protecting Georgia’s Agriculture and Food – Agrosecurity. Chapter 1.

  • Protecting America’s Agriculture and Food – Agrosecurity. Chapters 1 and 4.

Slide 44


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