The Effects of Single Parenting on the Academic Achievement of Students. Francene Leonce & Pamela Ledbetter Education 703.22- Spring 2009 Professor O’Connor- Petruso. Table of Contents. Research Rationale Research Design Threats to Internal Validity Threats to External Validity
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Francene Leonce & Pamela Ledbetter
Education 703.22- Spring 2009
*Two groupsare exposed to a treatment (X), and post tested (O). Groups (not individuals) are not randomly assigned.
One designated treatment for both groups (X1) & (X2).
* There are many factors within the lives of our students that may sway the results of the research. Some of these may be lateness, absences, and illnesses. Also due to the fact that the students may have not eaten breakfast, or may have had a fight with their caregiver. Within the classroom, distractions can have an effect on the outcome of the surveys as well, especially in an inclusive population. For example, telephone calls, fire drills, shelter drills, announcements, outbursts, snow, rain, a piece of flying lint etc.
* Maturity may pose as a threat to the validity of our research in that some of the improvement in their achievement may simply be a result of the students’ inner maturity making them more apt to tackle specific tasks. Especially in a kindergarten classroom where the ages range from 4 through 6, maturation must be taken into consideration.
* Students may respond to different personalities differently.
* Students may be transferred or discharged to other schools thus altering the data.
Two different groups: a second grade gifted class and an inclusion kindergarten class.
Pre and post testing may affect results due to familiarity of the directions and expectations the second time.
* Familiarity with directions and format.
*Not a random selection of students/parents.
*Interaction during the survey may allow for imitation of answers.
*The administrator’s mood, enthusiasm or lack thereof may encourage or discourage the student’s answers during the research.
With a corelational coefficient of (rxy) =0.459, there appears to be no correlation between the frequency of communication with parents and the reading levels of kindergarteners.
With a corelational coefficient of (rxy) = 0.823, there appears to be a good positive relationship between the frequency of parental involvement and the reading levels of 2nd graders.
2 Reading Scoresnd Grade Proposed Data
With a co-relational coefficient of rxy = (.911), there is a very good positive relationship between the attitudes of kindergartners and their reading scores.
With a co-relational coefficient of rxy = (.870), there is a good positive relationship between the attitudes of kindergartners and their reading scores.
O’Connor-Petruso, Sharon. A. (2009, February 5). Descriptive & Inferential Stats, Analyses, Threats, & Designs. Presented at an Ed 703.22 lecture at Brooklyn College.