The effects of single parenting on the academic achievement of students
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The Effects of Single Parenting on the Academic Achievement of Students. Francene Leonce & Pamela Ledbetter Education 703.22- Spring 2009 Professor O’Connor- Petruso. Table of Contents. Research Rationale Research Design Threats to Internal Validity Threats to External Validity

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The effects of single parenting on the academic achievement of students

The Effects of Single Parenting on the Academic Achievement of Students

Francene Leonce & Pamela Ledbetter

Education 703.22- Spring 2009

Professor O’Connor-Petruso


Table of contents
Table of Contents

  • Research Rationale

  • Research Design

  • Threats to Internal Validity

  • Threats to External Validity

  • Proposed Data

  • Congruent Graphs/Charts

  • Data Analysis

  • References


Research rationale
Research Rationale

  • Thus far, in our study on the effects of single parenting on academic achievement, our research seems to point to income, parental involvement and more subtly, attitudes towards education, as the major contributors. Since income is not a factor that we can alter, as educators, we focused on those areas where we felt an educator might be able to make a difference.

  • Areas chosen for investigation, experimentation and analysis.

    • How communication or a lack thereof might play a part in reading scores.

    • What impact do student’ attitudes towards reading have on their achievement.


Research design
Research Design

*Quasi-Experimental-Two Groups

*Two groupsare exposed to a treatment (X), and post tested (O). Groups (not individuals) are not randomly assigned.

One designated treatment for both groups (X1) & (X2).

  • *Symbolic Design:

    • O X1 O

    • O X2 O

  • This design is quasi experimental because the research is performed within two public schools with similar demographics and the participants are not randomly assigned . The study is a comparative one between two different classes in two different schools. Both groups were pretested mid year, the same treatment is to be administered to both classes and the participants are to be post tested.


  • Threats to internal validity
    Threats to Internal Validity

    • History

      * There are many factors within the lives of our students that may sway the results of the research. Some of these may be lateness, absences, and illnesses. Also due to the fact that the students may have not eaten breakfast, or may have had a fight with their caregiver. Within the classroom, distractions can have an effect on the outcome of the surveys as well, especially in an inclusive population. For example, telephone calls, fire drills, shelter drills, announcements, outbursts, snow, rain, a piece of flying lint etc.

    • Maturation

      * Maturity may pose as a threat to the validity of our research in that some of the improvement in their achievement may simply be a result of the students’ inner maturity making them more apt to tackle specific tasks. Especially in a kindergarten classroom where the ages range from 4 through 6, maturation must be taken into consideration.

    • Instrumentation

      * Students may respond to different personalities differently.


    Threats to internal validity1
    Threats to Internal Validity

    • Mortality

      * Students may be transferred or discharged to other schools thus altering the data.

    • Differential Selection of Subjects

      Two different groups: a second grade gifted class and an inclusion kindergarten class.

      Testing

      Pre and post testing may affect results due to familiarity of the directions and expectations the second time.

      Selection- MaturationInteraction

    • Children develop at different rates and in their own time. Boys and girls have different maturity schedules, culture and home-life may play a part in the maturity levels of our students


    Threats to external validity
    Threats to External Validity

    • Pretest Treatment

      * Familiarity with directions and format.

    • Selection-Treatment Interaction

      *Not a random selection of students/parents.

    • Treatment Diffusion

      *Interaction during the survey may allow for imitation of answers.

    • Experimenter Effects

      *The administrator’s mood, enthusiasm or lack thereof may encourage or discourage the student’s answers during the research.


    Proposed quantitative data parent survey question 16
    Proposed Quantitative DataParent Survey Question # 16

    • How often do you communicate with your child's teacher?

    • (4) At least once a week

    • (3) Once a month

    • (2) 3 times a year

    • (1) Only upon teacher's request

    • Results



    Comparative correlations between parental involvement and reading scores
    Comparative Correlations between Parental Involvement and & Reading Scores

    With a corelational coefficient of (rxy) =0.459, there appears to be no correlation between the frequency of communication with parents and the reading levels of kindergarteners.

    With a corelational coefficient of (rxy) = 0.823, there appears to be a good positive relationship between the frequency of parental involvement and the reading levels of 2nd graders.


    Proposed qualitative data student survey
    Proposed Qualitative Data Reading ScoresStudent Survey



    2 Reading Scoresnd Grade Proposed Data


    Comparative correlations between students attitudes reading scores
    Comparative Correlations between Students’ Attitudes & Reading Scores

    With a co-relational coefficient of rxy = (.911), there is a very good positive relationship between the attitudes of kindergartners and their reading scores.

    With a co-relational coefficient of rxy = (.870), there is a good positive relationship between the attitudes of kindergartners and their reading scores.


    Data analysis
    Data Analysis Reading Scores

    • Analysis

    • pending posttest results.


    References
    References Reading Scores

    O’Connor-Petruso, Sharon. A. (2009, February 5). Descriptive & Inferential Stats, Analyses, Threats, & Designs. Presented at an Ed 703.22 lecture at Brooklyn College.


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