NOAA Roles in Response to Sunken and Derelict Vessels
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NOAA Roles in Response to Sunken and Derelict Vessels Doug Helton. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration. Presentation Summary. NOAA Roles and Concerns Threats from Wrecks NOAA Databases Response to Threats

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NOAA Roles in Response to Sunken and Derelict Vessels

Doug Helton

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOAA Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration


Presentation summary
Presentation Summary

  • NOAA Roles and Concerns

  • Threats from Wrecks

  • NOAA Databases

  • Response to Threats

  • Wrecks vs. abandoned vessels


Terminology
Terminology

  • Salvage

    • When a vessel or cargo has residual value.

    • Removal incentive

  • Wreck Removal

    • When vessel or debris has no significant value.

    • Contract removal

  • Abandonment


Noaa interests in shipwrecks
NOAA interests in shipwrecks

  • National Marine Sanctuary Program

  • Office of Coast Survey

  • Office of Ocean Exploration

  • Office of Response and Restoration


Threats from wrecks
Threats from wrecks

  • Oil pollution and Hazardous Cargoes

  • Smothering from vessel/debris

  • Chronic source of debris

  • Navigational obstruction

  • Trawl and navigation obstruction

  • Physical destruction of habitats

  • Illegal dump sites

  • Nutrient enrichment

  • Entrapment and Safety Hazard




Hazardous cargo

1944: the M/V Empire Knight ran aground on Boon Island Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury

1987: The Pac Baroness sank off Pt Conception, CA. The vessel was carrying 280,000 gallons of fuel and 21,000 tons of powdered copper

Hazardous Cargo:


Threats to navigation
Threats to Navigation Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury


Habitat threats
Habitat Threats Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury


M/V Clipper Lasco Grounding, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 2006 Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury


Wildlife entrapment
Wildlife Entrapment Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury

  • F/V Paradise Queen, Kure Atoll, NWHI

  • Entrapment of endangered monk seals


Human health and safety
Human Health and Safety Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury


Public safety
Public Safety Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury


Visual eyesore and loss of tourism

F/V Van Loi, Kauai Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury

Oil, debris, and fishing gear spread along hotel beach

Visual eyesore and loss of tourism


Source of marine debris
Source of Marine Debris Ledge, ME. The vessel was carrying a mixed cargo, including mercury




Empire, Louisiana some situations can become debris themselves


Samala photos
Samala Photos some situations can become debris themselves

  • As vessel deteriorate, they become a source of debris


Illegal dump sites
Illegal Dump Sites some situations can become debris themselves

  • M/V Kimton, Fajardo, Puerto Rico

    • Vessel used for illegal dumping of waste oils and explosives

  • Abandoned Barge, Louisiana. Potential dumping site


Noaa databases
NOAA Databases some situations can become debris themselves

  • Abandoned Vessels (primarily affecting corals)

  • Automated Wrecks and Obstructions Information System (Navigation hazards)

  • Resources and Undersea Threats (historic and pollution)


Abandoned Smuggling Vessel, Guam, 2008 some situations can become debris themselves


Awois
AWOIS some situations can become debris themselves

  • NOAA Coast Survey

  • Automated Wrecks and Obstructions Information System


Resources and undersea threats rust noaa marine sanctuaries program
Resources and Undersea Threats (RUST) some situations can become debris themselvesNOAA Marine Sanctuaries Program


Historic wrecks
Historic Wrecks some situations can become debris themselves

  • 1953: The 468-foot freighter SS Jacob Luckenbach near entrance to Golden Gate, CA. Recent response efforts removed 85,000 gallons of bunker fuel.

  • 1941: The 440-foot tanker Montebello off the coast of San Luis Obispo, CA. The Montebello was carrying more than 75,000 barrels of crude oil


Us navy sub s 5 cape may nj 1920
US Navy Sub S-5. Cape May NJ. 1920 some situations can become debris themselves

Courtesy of the US Navy


Tanker bow mariner offshore virginia
Tanker “Bow Mariner” some situations can become debris themselves Offshore Virginia


Not all targets are vessels
Not all targets are vessels some situations can become debris themselves


Response to underwater legacy environmental threats rulet
Response to Underwater Legacy Environmental Threats (RULET) some situations can become debris themselves

Oil slick from the leak of Navy Special Fuel Oil from Mississinewa in Ulithi

Lagoon. Photograph courtesy of NOAA


Chehalis case history
Chehalis case history some situations can become debris themselves


Uss chehalis background
USS Chehalis: some situations can become debris themselves Background

  • 311-foot US Navy Patapsco Class Gasoline Tanker

  • Commissioned December, 1944

  • Exploded and burned on October 7, 1949, while off-loading gasoline at Pago Pago Harbor on Tutuila Island.

  • 6 lives lost. Burned for 22 hours

  • Scuttled in 160 feet of water on October 8 near fuel terminal

  • Aviation and automotive gasoline cargo, diesel bunkers

  • 115,000 + gallons

  • 18,000 rounds of ammunition


Challenges
Challenges some situations can become debris themselves

  • Assessing and prioritizing wrecks

  • Establishing an effective response organization

  • Developing and implementing appropriate technical solutions

  • Environmental and historic compliance

  • Funding


Hypothetical management decision
Hypothetical Management Decision some situations can become debris themselves

Risk and Uncertainty

Feasibility and costs

Health and Safety

Probability and consequences if a spill occurs

Prioritizing wrecks for remediation

Funding

Trajectory and fate

Environmental and Historical compliance


Conclusions part 1
Conclusions part 1. some situations can become debris themselves

  • Most wrecks are probably minor threats

  • Some may contain large amounts of oil

  • We need to conduct a thorough assessment and consideration of the environmental trade-offs.

  • NOAA is working with the USCG to prioritize vessels for further investigation


Vessels still afloat
Vessels Still Afloat some situations can become debris themselves

  • Vessels that are not maintained but are still intact/floating.

  • While floating there is an opportunity to easily and cheaply remove them before sinking creates larger problems


F v mwaalil saat
F/V Mwaalil Saat some situations can become debris themselves

  • Survey in 2003

  • Sank in 2004 during Typhoon Tingting

  • Response costs in excess of $3.5 million

  • Other floating derelicts surveyed in 2003 sank in the same storm




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