Exchange server 2010 high availability design
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UCC305. Exchange Server 2010 High Availability Design. Scott Schnoll [email protected] Principal Technical Writer Microsoft Corporation. Agenda. Example designs Sizing Active Directory Namespaces Certificates User Distribution Models Storage Network

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Exchange Server 2010 High Availability Design

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Exchange server 2010 high availability design

UCC305

Exchange Server 2010High Availability Design

Scott Schnoll

[email protected]

Principal Technical Writer

Microsoft Corporation


Agenda

Agenda

  • Example designs

  • Sizing

  • Active Directory

  • Namespaces

  • Certificates

  • User Distribution Models

  • Storage

  • Network

  • Database Availability Group (DAG) Member Policies


Exchange server 2010 high availability

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: Example Designs


Dag design examples

DAG Design Examples

  • Two–member DAG

    • Smallest possible DAG that can provide high availability

    • Best-suited for small organizations that need high availability, but not site resilience

    • Enables redundancy of all roles with only two Exchange servers (can be Standard Edition of Exchange)

    • Will require third server (witness)

    • Will require non-WNLB solution


Dag design examples1

DAG Design Examples

  • Four-member DAG (single site)

    • Provides greater availability than a 2 or 3-member DAG

    • Can deploy enough copies to

      • Use Exchange Native Data Protection

      • Use JBOD instead of RAID

      • Deploy lagged database copies


Dag design examples2

DAG Design Examples

  • Seven-member, multi-site DAG

  • Provides greater availability by adding voting-only Mailbox servers

  • Because more voters are available, more servers can be lost while still maintaining quorum


Exchange server 2010 high availability1

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: Sizing Database Availability Groups


Sizing database availability groups

Sizing Database Availability Groups

  • The larger the DAG…

    • the better the resiliency, as larger DAGs continue to provide as much service as they can after more failures, based on the configuration

    • the better efficiency of the hardware, as you can more evenly distribute the active load across all members

  • For server count, consider a multiple of the number of database copies you are deploying

    • For example 3 copies and 3 or 6 servers, 4 copies and 4 or 8 servers, etc.


Sizing database availability groups1

Sizing Database Availability Groups

  • Question: How many DAGs should I deploy?

    • Answer: It depends

  • You will need to deploy multiple DAGs

    • If you need more than 16 servers

    • If you are deploying across multiple domains

    • If you need to separate administration of DAGs

  • You may also need multiple DAGs depending on your site resilience architecture


Exchange server 2010 high availability2

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: Active Directory


Active directory

Active Directory

  • Follow Active Directory guidance for Active Directory site definition

    • http://aka.ms/nyd3h5

  • Site assignment controls the association of Client Access and Hub Transport to Mailbox

    • CAS/HUB service local Mailbox servers, “mostly”


Exchange server 2010 high availability3

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: Namespaces


Namespaces

Namespaces

  • When planning for site resilience, each datacenter needs to be considered active

    • Exchange Server 2010 site resilience requires active Client Access and Hub Transport in each datacenter containing Mailbox server

      • These services are used by databases that undergo a cross-site *over


Namespaces1

Namespaces

  • Each datacenter is considered active

  • Each datacenter needs the following namespaces

    • OWA/OA/EWS/EAS namespace

    • POP/IMAP namespace

    • RPC Client Access Server Array namespace

    • SMTP namespace

  • One datacenter will maintain Autodiscover namespace

  • New in SP1 – FailbackURL namespace


Namespaces2

Namespaces

  • Use Split DNS for Exchange hostnames used by clients

    • Minimizes number of needed hostnames

      • mail.contoso.com for Exchange connectivity on intranet and Internet

      • mail.contoso.com has different IP addresses in intranet/Internet DNS


Namespaces3

Namespaces

External DNS

Mail.contoso.com

Pop.contoso.com

Imap.contoso.com

Autodiscover.contoso.com

Smtp.contoso.com

External DNS

Mail.sp.contoso.com

Pop.sp.contoso.com

Imap.sp.contoso.com

Smtp.sp.contoso.com

ExternalURL =mail.contoso.com

CAS Array =outlook.contoso.com

OA endpoint =mail.contoso.com

ExternalURL = mail.sp.contoso.com

CAS Array = outlook.sp.contoso.com

OA endpoint =

mail.sp.contoso.com

Moscow

St. Petersburg

Internal DNS

Mail.contoso.com

Pop.contoso.com

Imap.contoso.com

Autodiscover.contoso.com

Smtp.contoso.com

Outlook.contoso.com

Internal DNS

Mail.sp.contoso.com

Pop.sp.contoso.com

Imap.sp.contoso.com

Smtp.sp.contoso.com

Outlook.sp.contoso.com

HT

CAS

CAS

HT

AD

MBX

MBX

AD


Exchange server 2010 high availability4

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: Certificates


Certificates

Certificates

  • Minimize the number of certificates by using 1 certificate for

    • All Client Access, Edge Transport, Hub Transport and reverse proxy servers

  • Use Subject Alternative Name (SAN) certificate to cover multiple hostnames

  • If leveraging a certificate per datacenter, then ensure that the Certificate Principal Name is the same on all certificates

    • Outlook Anywhere won’t connect if the Principal Name on the certificate does not match the value configured in msstd:

      • Set-OutlookProvider EXPR -CertPrincipalNamemsstd:mail.contoso.com


Exchange server 2010 high availability5

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: User Distribution Models


User distribution models

User Distribution Models

  • Active/Passive user distribution model

    • Database copies deployed in the secondary datacenter, but no active mailboxes are hosted there

  • Active/Active user distribution model

    • User population dispersed across both datacenters with each datacenter being the primary datacenter for its specific user population


Active active user distribution

Active/Active User Distribution


Active active user distribution1

Active/Active User Distribution


Exchange server 2010 high availability6

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: RPC Client Access Server Array


Rpc client access server array

RPC Client Access Server Array

  • 1 RPC CAS Array per Active Directory site

  • RPC CAS Array does not provide any load balancing: you need a load balancer

    • FQDN of the RPC CAS Array must resolve internally to a load-balanced virtual IP address in DNS

  • RPCClientAccessServer is a property of Mailbox database

    • If database was created before array, then it is set to random CAS FQDN (or local machine if role co-location)

    • If database is created after array, then it is set to the array FQDN

    • Configure pre-existing databases to use RPC CAS Array

      • Set-MailboxDatabase -RPCClientAccessServer


Exchange server 2010 high availability7

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: Storage


Storage

Storage

  • Host each copy of a database on isolated storage

  • Deployment on RAID or JBOD will be based on several factors

    • Cost

    • Hardware

    • Number and type of copies

    • Datacenter topology


Exchange server 2010 high availability8

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: Network


Network

Network

  • Complete redundancy is preferred but not required

  • Must have < 500 ms round-trip return latency between DAG members

  • Replication is always from source to target

    • If you have multiple passive copies in a remote datacenter, you will have multiple log streams from the active (one to each passive)


Network1

Network

  • DAGs include compression for log shipping

    • Controllable setting for the DAG

    • Controlled at subnet level (default is inter-subnet)

    • MSIT sees 30% compression

    • Amount will vary for each customer based on message traffic

  • SP1 adds Continuous Replication Block Mode

    • Reduces the exposure of data loss on failure by replicating to passive copies all logs writes in parallel to them being locally persisted

    • Only active when replication is up-to-date in terms of copying complete logs


Network2

Network

  • If using iSCSI storage, configure DAG and cluster to ignore iSCSI networks

    • Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupNetwork -Identity <DAG Network Name> -ReplicationEnabled:$false -IgnoreNetwork:$true

  • Block cross-network communication to minimize heartbeat traffic

Allowed

Subnet 1

Subnet 3

M

M

M

M

R

R

R

R

Subnet 2

Subnet 4

Blocked


Exchange server 2010 high availability9

Exchange Server 2010 High Availability

Design Principles: DAG Member Policies


Policies

Policies

  • Database Copy Automatic Activation Policy

    • Configured with Set-MailboxServer

      • Blocked – no automatic activation

      • IntrasiteOnly – activation within site only; blocks cross-site failover

      • Unrestricted – normal mode, no restrictions


Policies1

Policies

  • Maximum Active Databases

    • Configured with Set-MailboxServer

    • Whole number value that specifies the maximum number of active database copies on the server

    • Once maximum is reached, no other databases can be activated on server


Related content

Related Content

  • UCC402 - Exchange 2010 High Availability Deep Dive


Resources

Resources

  • Exchange Team Blog

    • http://aka.ms/EHLO

  • Exchange 2010 Documentation Library

    • http://aka.ms/Ex2010Docs


Feedback

Feedback

Your feedback is very important!

Please complete an evaluation form!

Thank you!


Questions

Questions?

  • UCC305

  • Scott Schnoll

    • Principal Technical Writer

    • [email protected]

    • http://blogs.technet.com/scottschnoll

    • Twitter: @schnoll

  • You can ask me questions at the “Ask the Expert” zone:

    • November 10, 2011 12:30 – 13:30


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