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REDUCING RISKS, PREPARING FOR AND MANAGING CLIMATE DISASTERS. Presentation of the Office of Civil Defense for the Forum on Partnership Building for DRRM and CCA, June 18-20, 2012. “Disaster is a development issue and not a humanitarian issue.” - WB Institute. SCOPE OF PRESENTATION.

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Presentation of the Office of Civil Defense for the Forum on Partnership Building for DRRM and CCA, June 18-20, 2012

“Disaster is a development issue and not a humanitarian issue.”- WB Institute


  • Philippine Disaster Risk Profile

  • Overview of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

  • NDRRM Plan

  • Priority Programs and Projects

  • Making DRRM Work: Options and Resources

Philippine Disaster Risk Profile

Philippine Disaster Risk Profile

Over the past decades, the Philippines has been labeled as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world mainly because of its geographic and geologic location, and physical characteristics.

Philippine Disaster Risk Profile

The country lies along several active fault lines. All over the country, there are active, inactive and potentially active volcanoes. We record an average of 20 earthquakes per day and around 100-150 earthquakes felt per year.

Philippine Disaster Risk Profile

Climate risks bring with it exposure to super typhoons, El Niño-related droughts, projected rainfall change and projected temperature increase.

In addition, flooding is another hazard facing the country due to rains brought about by typhoons and the monsoon.

Philippine Disaster Risk Profile

Aside from natural causes, the Philippines also experiences human‐induced disasters. These are brought about by hazards that are of political and socio‐economic origins and inappropriate and ill‐applied technologies.

Philippine Disaster Risk Profile

Many are forced to evacuate during times of conflict and extreme weather conditions. People die from floods, landslides and earthquakes primarily due to the destruction of substandard buildings and inappropriate location. The health of people is severely at risk because of industrial and domestic waste that pollutes the water, land and air.

Major Typhoons and Impact (2005-2011)

Major Typhoons and Impact (2005-2011)

Major Typhoons and Impact (2005-2011)

Damage to Infrastructure

Damage to Agriculture

TS Sendong Disaster: Causes, Effects and Impacts

  • In Region 10 alone, 4 provinces, 26 municipalities, 3 cities, 206 barangays were affected; 70,314 families were affected/displaced, 1,206 were declared as dead, 181 as missing, and 6,071 as injured.

  • Total number of damaged houses is placed at 39,888. Damage in productive, infrastructure, human development and other cross-sectoral concerns is estimated at PhP5.442B. Total losses from all sectors combined is placed at PhP1.388B.

  • Priority recovery and reconstruction needs is valued at PhP26.723B.

Understanding Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

4,000 deaths

2,000 missing

8,000 injured


Cotabato City waterfront warehouses and residential areas in the aftermath of the 1976 Moro Gulf Tsunami.

Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability / Capacity

Hazards become disasters only if vulnerable people and resources are exposed to them.

Vulnerability &





“An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, Appropriating Funds Therefore and for Other Purposes”

Paradigm Shift in Disaster Management

Bottom-up and participative disaster risk reduction

Disasters mainly a reflection of people’s vulnerability

Integrated approach to genuine social and human development to reduce disaster risk

Focus on disaster response and anticipation


disaster management

Disasters as merely a function of physical hazards



The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order

to save lives,

reduce health impacts,

ensure public safety and

meet the basic subsistence

needs of the people


Disaster response is predominantly focused on immediate and short-term needs and is sometimes called “disaster relief”.

A systematic effort to analyze and manage the causes of disasters by reducing the vulnerabilities and enhancing capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the probability of disaster.

Living with Risks

  • Disasters are not the necessary result of natural hazards but occur only when these natural hazards intersect with built environment (physical), particularly poorly located and poorly constructed development, as well as social, economic and other environmental vulnerabilities.

  • Natural hazards can not be managed. The characteristics of the built environment and underlying factors of a vulnerable condition can be managed.

  • Therefore, the only thing that can be done is to manage the built environment and address underlying factors or dynamic pressures of vulnerable conditions to reduce vulnerabilities as well as disaster risks.

DRRM Framework

  • The DRRM Law provides a responsive and proactive manner of addressing disasters through a framework that:

    • prioritizes on community level DRRM focusing on the most vulnerable sectors

    • strengthens local capacities

    • ensures broad-based and greater participation from Civil Society

    • addresses the root causes of disaster risks

Key Players in DRRM








Priority DRRM Programs and Projects

DRRM Thematic Areas and Long-Term Goals

National DRRM Plan

As Guide to national and local efforts on DRRM:

  • Raise awareness and understanding among government and the people on the country’s DRRM goal

  • Show the overall direction and set of priorities that delineates the fundamental elements and components of disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management in the country

  • Provide a common direction towards addressing underlying causes of vulnerability to help reduce and manage the risks to disasters

  • Show that DRR and DRM efforts are not isolated activities but are inevitably linked to the development process and should converge and contribute towards attaining sustainable development

Disaster Preparedness

Disaster Prevention and Mitigation

Safer, adaptive and disaster resilient Filipino communities

14 Objectives, 24 Outcomes, 56 Outputs and 93 Activities

Disaster Response

Disaster Rehabilitation and Recovery

Thematic Area 1: Prevention and Mitigation

2. Thematic Area: Preparedness

Thematic Area 3: Response

Thematic Area 4: Rehabilitation and Recovery

Priority Programs and Projects

  • Establishment of DRRM Training Institutes

  • Installation of end-to-end flood early warning systems in critical areas

  • Establishment of Local DRRMCs and DRRM Offices

  • Hazard and risk mapping in the most high-risk areas in the country

  • Institutional capability program on DRRM and CCA for decision makers, public sector employees, and key stakeholders

  • Capacity building on PDNA for national government agencies, regional line agencies, and local government offices

Priority Programs and Projects

7. Review, amend/revise the following:

  • Building Code to integrate DRRM and CCA

  • EO 72 s. 1993 on CLUPs of LGUs

  • Various environmental policies (i.e., EO 26) to integrate DRRM and CCA

  • Development of communications protocol, common standards and tools for measurement and assessment

  • Mainstreaming DRRM and CCA in local and national development planning

Making DRRM Work:Options and Resources

Disaster Trends and Implications

  • Major disasters in the last six (6) years affected more than four (4) regions. The comprehensive, integrated and cluster approach in DRRM is a must to optimize scarce response resources thru multi-stakeholders’ participation.

  • Increasing intensity in rainfall signify both the potential benefit of water resource to be managed or the threat of losses if not properly mitigated.

  • Data-sharing and modeling for disaster prevention and mitigation have become imperatives for long-term solutions.

Disaster Trends and Implications

  • Increasing damages to infrastructure indicate the seriousness for the development and upgrading of engineering solutions and structural designs through science and worst-case scenario setting.

  • Widespread agricultural losses warrant the development of disaster-resistant/tolerant agri-systems and improved farming technology

  • Increasing number of affected population emphasize the need for people awareness of DRR systems (ie., early warning, drills) and their active participation in DRRM efforts.

Sources of DRR Support

  • National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Fund (NDRRMF)

  • Local DRRM/Calamity Fund

  • 20% Local Development Fund

  • General Appropriations Act (government agencies budget)

  • Priority Development Assistance Fund (PDAF)

  • Official Development Assistance

The Challenge. . .

  • Developing a common understanding of the different aspects of DRRM and commitment of stakeholders to consider these in national and local planning and programming.

  • Acquiring broad-based appreciation that DRRM is ...

    • about lessening the vulnerability and increasing capacities of men and women in communities and governments;

    • about mainstreaming disaster consciousness in national and local governance and development efforts;

    • strongly linked to climate change adaptation; and

    • achieved through multi-stakeholders partnership.

Paraphrasing UN Sec. Gen. Kofi Annan:

Investments in disaster risk reduction have to be MADE today.

though the benefits of disaster prevention and mitigation may lie in the future and not so tangible today . . .

they are the disasters that DID NOT happen.

End of Presentation

Thank you and Good Day!

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