Brain spinal cord
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Brain & Spinal Cord. http://www.edheads.org/activities/brain_stimulation/. Protection of CNS. Bone Blood-Brain Barrier least permeable capillaries in body (allows only water, glucose, and a.a. to pass thru) Useless against fat-soluble molecules (alcohol, nicotine, anesthesia, etc) CSF

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Brain & Spinal Cord

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Brain spinal cord

Brain & Spinal Cord

http://www.edheads.org/activities/brain_stimulation/


Protection of cns

Protection of CNS

  • Bone

  • Blood-Brain Barrier

    • least permeable capillaries in body (allows only water, glucose, and a.a. to pass thru)

    • Useless against fat-soluble molecules (alcohol, nicotine, anesthesia, etc)

  • CSF

    • Ventricles - 4 chambers filled w/CSF

    • CSF – surrounds exposed surfaces of CNS, cushions and supports, transports nutrients, chemical messengers and waste products

  • Meninges – series of layers covering CNS

    • Protects against shock, infection, friction

    • Delivers O2 and nutrients to meninges, 3 Layers

      • Dura Mater

      • Outermost, Tough fibrous layer

      • Fused to periosteum of skull

    • Subdural space – lymph fluid

      • Arachnoid

    • Subarachnoid space - CSF

      • Pia Mater

      • Bonds to underlying neural tissue

      • Extensive circulatory supply


Main parts of the brain

Main Parts of the Brain

  • Cerebral Hemispheres

  • Diencephalon

  • Brain Stem

  • Cerebellum


Cerebral brain structures

Cerebral Brain Structures

  • Gyrus – elevated ridges

  • Sulcus – shallow groves

  • Fissure – deep groove that separates large regions of the brain (ex. Longitudinal fissure separates L/R hemispheres)


Cerebral structure

Cerebral Structure

  • Cerebral cortex - gray matter

  • Cerebral White matter – nerve fibers

  • Corpus Callosum – connects the cerebral hemispheres

  • Ganglia Bodies – islands of gray matter


Cerebral cortex

Cerebral Cortex

  • Primary sensory, motor, and association cortex

  • Sensory

    – initial site for conscious sensation

  • Motor

    • conscious control of skeletal muscles (damage causes paralysis)

  • Association

    • Integrates all sensory inputs allowing conscious perception and planning of responses

    • Cognition – attention, language, social behavior and other higher processes


Cerebral hemispheres

Cerebral Hemispheres

  • Frontal Lobe

  • Parietal Lobe

  • Temporal Lobe

  • Occipital Lobe


Frontal lobe functions

Frontal Lobe Functions

  • Reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movements, emotions, problem solving

  • 4 functionally distinct areas

    • Primary motor cortex (most posterior)

    • Arousal/motivation (medial frontal)

    • Social behavior (orbital frontal)

    • Language comprehension (inferior lateral)

    • Working memory (dorsolateral)

      Broca’s Area – ability to speak


Parietal lobe functions

Parietal Lobe Functions

  • Posterior to central sulcus

  • Integrates sensory information (sensory homunolculi)

  • Visual spatial processing

  • Calculating, writing, right/left orientation

  • Naming and word recognition

  • Drawing


Temporal lobe

Temporal Lobe

  • Auditory Perception

  • Receptive component of language

  • Declarative and visual memory

  • Emotions

  • Olfactory area

  • Area of Wernicke – speech area


Occipital lobe

Occipital Lobe

  • Primary visual cortex

  • Responsible for visual processing


Diencephelon interbrain

Diencephelon (Interbrain)

  • Thalamus

    • Relay station and controls sensory inputs to cerebral cortex

    • Acts w/brainstem to control state of arousal

    • Participates in coordination of movements

  • Hypothalamus (floor)

    • Homeostasis regulation, body temperature, appetite, thirst

    • Control of autonomic nervous system

    • Regulates secretion of hormones including control of pituitary gland

  • Epithalamus (roof)

    • Houses pineal body

    • CSF is formed here


  • Brain stem

    Brain Stem

    • 3 Parts:

      • Midbrain

        • Reflex centers for vision and hearing

      • Pons

        • “Bridge” – fiber tracts

        • Nuclei involved in control of breathing

      • Medulla Oblongata

        • Merges w/spinal cord

        • Fiber tract area

        • Regulates hr, bp, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting

    • RAS (Reticular Activating System) – gray matter thru brain stem controls consciousness and wake/sleep cyles


    Cerebellum

    Cerebellum

    • Coordination and accuracy of complex movements and balance

    • Procedural memory


    The spinal cord

    The Spinal Cord

    • Controls spinal reflexes

    • Diameter decreases as it descends

      • Except at cervical enlargement

      • And lumbar enlargement

    • Central canal – filled w/ CSF

    • Gray matter – glial cells, cell bodies of neurons

      • Horns extend out into horns

    • White matter – myelinated and unmyelinated axons

    • Ascending tracts – sensory info to brain

    • Descending tracts – motor commands to spinal cord


    What is the general name that describes the pons medulla and midbrain

    What is the general name that describes the pons, medulla and midbrain?

    • Diencephalon

    • Cerebellum

    • Cerebrum

    • Brain stem


    In terms of volume the largest part of the brain is

    In terms of volume, the largest part of the brain is

    • Diencephalon

    • Cerebellum

    • Cerebrum

    • Brain stem

    • Frontal Lobe


    Which lobe is primarily responsible for somatosensation

    Which lobe is primarily responsible for somatosensation?

    • Frontal Lobe

    • Parietal Lobe

    • Temporal Lobe

    • Occipital Lobe

    • Cerebellum

    • Brain Stem


    Which lobe contains the primary visual cortex

    Which lobe contains the primary visual cortex?

    • Frontal Lobe

    • Parietal Lobe

    • Temporal Lobe

    • Occipital Lobe

    • Cerebellum

    • Brain Stem


    Damage to which lobe can produce disruptions to social and emotional behavour

    Damage to which lobe can produce disruptions to social and emotional behavour?

    • Frontal Lobe

    • Parietal Lobe

    • Temporal Lobe

    • Occipital Lobe

    • Cerebellum

    • Brain Stem


    The auditory cortex is found in the

    The auditory cortex is found in the:

    • Frontal Lobe

    • Parietal Lobe

    • Temporal Lobe

    • Occipital Lobe

    • Cerebellum

    • Brain Stem


    The fluid found in the brain s cavities is called this principally protects the brain from

    The fluid found in the brain's cavities is called ______; this principally protects the brain from ______.

    • Cerebrospinal fluid; external pressure

    • Cerebrospinal fluid; infection

    • Ventricular fluid; external pressure

    • Blood; infection and external pressure


    Brain spinal cord

    The _________________ serves as a protective filter that regulates the entrance of certain substances into the brain from the bloodstream.

    • Meninges

    • Bone

    • Gray matter

    • White matter

    • Blood-brain barrier


    What is the primary function of the cerebellum

    What is the primary function of the cerebellum? .

    • coordination of complex muscular movements

    • coordination of endocrine and nervous responses

    • control of digestion, circulation, and breathing movements

    • center of consciousness


    Brain spinal cord

    You just finished running and your heart rate is fast as is your breathing. The part of the brain controlling basic body functions such as heart rate and blood pressure is the _______.

    • Cerebrum

    • Cerebellum

    • Spinal cord

    • Medulla Oblongata


    The thalamus is responsible for which of the following functions

    The thalamus is responsible for which of the following functions?

    • connection between speech and hearing

    • motor coordination

    • control of many of the endocrine glands

    • integration and relay of information


    The primary functions of the spinal cord involve

    The primary functions of the spinal cord involve __________.

    • intelligence and memory

    • reflex actions and communication between the brain and spinal nerves

    • controlling muscle activity and maintaining balance

    • speech, smell, taste, hearing and vision


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