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16.34. The following pictures represent solutions that contain one or more of the compounds H 2 A, NaHA, and Na 2 A where H 2 A is a weak diprotic acid. (Na + ions and solvent water molecules have been omitted for clarity.). Which of the solutions are buffer solutions?

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slide4

16.34

The following pictures represent solutions that contain one or more of the compounds H2A, NaHA, and Na2A where H2A is a weak diprotic acid. (Na+ ions and solvent water molecules have been omitted for clarity.)

Which of the solutions are buffer solutions?

(b) Which solution has the greatest buffer capacity?

slide5

16.35

The following pictures represent solutions that contain a weak acid HA (pKa= 6.0) and its sodium salt NaA. (NA+ ions and solvent water molecules have been omitted for clarity.)

(a) Which solution has the highest pH? Which has the lowest pH?

(b) Draw a picture that represents the equilibrium state of solution (1) after addition of two H3O+ ions.

(c) Draw a picture that represents the equilibrium state of solution (1) after addition of two OH ions.

slide6

The strong acid HA is mixed with an equal molar amount of aqueous NaOH. Which of the following pictures represents the equilibrium state of the solution? (NA+ ions and solvent water molecules have been omitted for clarity.)

16.36

slide7

16.37

The following pictures represent solutions at various stages in the titration of a weak diprotic acid H2A with aqueous NaOH. (Na+ ions and solvent water molecules have been omitted for clarity.)

(a) To which of the following stages do solutions (1)–(4) correspond?

(i) Halfway to the first equivalence point

(ii) At the first

equivalence point

(iii) Halfway between the

first and second

equivalence points

(iv) Beyond the second equivalence point

(b) Which solution has the

highest pH? Which has the lowest pH?

slide8

16.38

The following pictures represent solutions at various stages in the titration of a weak base B with aqueous HCl. (Cl ions and solvent water molecules have been omitted for clarity.)

(a) To which of the following stages do solutions

(1)–(4) correspond?

(i) The initial solution before addition of

any HCl

(ii) Halfway to the equivalence point

(iii) At the

equivalence point

(iv) Beyond the

equivalence point

(b) Is the pH at the equivalence point more or less than 7?

slide9

16.39

The following pictures represent solutions of AgCl, which also may contain ions other than Ag+ and Cl- that are not shown. If solution (1) is a saturated solution of AgCl, classify solutions (2)–(4) as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated.

slide10

16.40

The following pictures represent solutions of Ag2CrO4, which also may contain ions other than Ag+ and CrO42that are not shown. Solution (1) is in equilibrium with solid Ag2CrO4. Will a precipitate of solid Ag2CrO4 form in solutions (2)–(4)? Explain.

slide11

16.41

The following plot shows two titration curves, each representing the titration of 50.0 mL of 0.100 M acid with 0.100 M NaOH:

(a) Which of the two curves represents the titration of a strong acid, and which a weak acid?

(b) What is the approximate pH at the equivalence point for each of the acids?

(c) What is the approximate pKa of the weak acid?

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