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Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century: reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause. Christopher Kniffen Research and Development Specialist Soil Works LLC. Human Microbiome Project (HMP)

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Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21stcentury: reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause.

Christopher Kniffen

Research and Development Specialist

Soil Works LLC.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Human Microbiome Project (HMP)

  • The HMP aims to characterize the microbial communities found at several different sites on the human body, and to analyze the role of these microbes in human health and disease.

  • The HMP found that the human gut on average contains 100 trillion bacteria.

  • Bacteria are needed to digest food, to synthesize certain vitamins, and to compete with disease-causing bacteria

http://commonfund.nih.gov/hmp/


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

  • Microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract form an intricate ecosystem affecting body weight, energy, and nutrition.

  • The ideal ratio of beneficial to pathogenic bacteria in your gut is

    • 85% good bacteria

    • 15% bad bacteria

  • An imbalance in bacterial populations decreases your bodies natural immune system.

Nutr ClinPract. 2012 Apr;27(2):201-14. doi: 10.1177/0884533611436116. Epub 2012 Feb 24.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Since 1992, Inflammatory Bowel Disease has increased 40%

  • The main form of IBD is Crohn’s disease. Symptoms of Crohn’s include:

    • Abdominal pain

    • Vomiting

    • Diarrhea

    • Rectal bleeding

    • Sever internal cramps/muscle spasms in the pelvis

    • Weight loss

Cosnes, J., Gower-Rousseau, C., Seksik, P., and Cortot, A. 2011. Epidemiology and Natural History of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Gastroenterology 140, 1785-1794.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Gastrointestinal Infections: Age-Adjusted Rates of Death in the United States, 1979–2004

  • Vital Statistics of the United States


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

  • On February 1, 2012, researchers at the Pre-& Probiotics conference reported that worldwide probiotic sales are expected to increase from

    $2.7 billion in 2011 $4 billion in 2016.

    That’s a 48% increase.

  • The United States is showing the fastest growth of probiotic sales, with the industry bringing in $140 million in 2011.

“Probiotics Market By Products (Functional Foods, Dietary Supplements, Specialty Nutrients, Animal Feed), Applications (Regular, Therapeutic, Preventive Health Care) And Ingredients (Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, Yeast) – Global Trends & Forecasts To 2017”.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

So…… If we have 100 trillion bacteria in our gut, then why are we needing probiotics?

WHAT HAS CHANGED?


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

  • In 1995 the US received marketing approval for the following transgenic crops:

    • Canola with modified oil composition (Calgene)

    • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn/maize (Ciba-Geigy)

    • Cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil (Calgene)

    • Bt cotton (Monsanto)

    • Bt potatoes (Monsanto)

    • Soybeans resistant to the herbicide glyphosate (Monsanto)

    • Virus-resistant squash (Asgrow)

    • Delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto, and Monsanto)

James, C. and A.F. Krattiger. 1996. Global Review of the Field Testing and Commercialization of Transgenic Plants, 1986 to 1995: The First Decade of Crop Biotechnology. ISAAA Briefs No. 1. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. pp. 31.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Transgenic or Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)are crops that have had a foreign gene inserted into their DNA.

  • In NON-GMO plants, the production of the EPSPS gene is stopped by chemical herbicides. This results in a decrease in the NON-GMO plants immunity to pathogenic diseases, which ultimately, causes death to all NON-GMO plants.

  • In GMO plants, this foreign gene allows the plant to compensate for discontinued production of the EPSPS gene caused by herbicides.

  • In the GMO crop, the inserted gene allows chemical pesticides and herbicides tobe applied without detriment to the plants immune system.

  • For the grower this means they have to spend less time and effort on weed control while still producing high yields…….its an easy choice right?

Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. BiochemBiophys Res Commun, 1980, 94, 1207-1212.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

  • In 2007, glyphosate (Roundup) was the most common herbicide used in the agricultural sector.

  • Glyphosate use rose 1500% from 1994 to 2005.

  • 100 million pounds of glyphosate is used every year on more than a billion acres.

United States EPA 2007 Pesticide Market Estimates Agriculture, Home and Garden

“Food herbicide residues set to rise as much as 150 times”, Press Release, GM Freeze, 8 February 2012, http://www.gmfreeze.org/news-releases/180/

Cherry B. GM crops increase herbicide use in the United States. Science in Society 45, 44-46, 2010


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

But, the manufacturer promotes that glyphosate is “completely safe for the environment.”

So safe you can drink it!

  • In 1991, the Peer Review Committee classified glyphosate as Group E (evidence of non-carcinogenicity) based on a lack of convincing evidence.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Patent 7771736 issued on August 10, 2010.

Glyphosate was patented as an antimicrobial agent.

Estimated Expiration Date: August 29, 2023.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

So……

Are Probiotics correcting the cause…..or reacting to symptoms?

If you have 100 trillion bacteria in your stomach, and you are consuming a known antimicrobial agent…..is there a connection?


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

GMO FED

NON-GMO FED

Figure 3. Stomach shows allergic response of discoloration and inflammation in GMO fed pig (right) compared with control (left)

Sirinathsinghji E. GM Soy Linked to Illnesses in Farm Pigs. Science in Society 55, 8-9, 2012.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Consumer Benefits:

  • The 2011 Meeting of physicians found that in crop sprayed towns in Argentina there was a reduction in the average age and height of residents. In addition residents experienced increased, “birth defects, mutagenesis, miscarriages, depression and suicide, disorders of the central nervous system and other neurological pathologies; disabilities, spina bifida, lupus, leukemia and other types of cancers; chloracne and other skin problems; asthma, allergies, and other respiratory and lung-related problems; male sterility and impotence; hormonal disruption and other hormonal disorders; diminished childhood development; prolonged febrile syndrome without focus; children’s increased vulnerability to pollutants; anemia, multiple sclerosis cerebral ischemia, death.”

    • http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Pesticide_illnesses_and_GM_soya.php

    • http://www.reduas.fcm.unc.edu.ar/declaration-of-2nd-meeting-of-physicians-of-sprayed-and-fumigated-towns-and-villages/

De Roos AJ, Blair A, Rusiecki JA, Hoppin JA, Svec M, Dosemeci M, Sandler DP, Alavanja MC. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 2005, 113, 49-54.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Consumer Benefits:

  • In doses far lower than those used in agricultural spraying. Glyphosate has caused birth defects in frog and chicken embryos. Humans have the same developmental mechanisms as frogs and chickens.

  • At lower “nontoxic” concentrations of glyphosate (1 ppm), males exhibit a testosterone decrease by 35%

Ho MW. Roundup Kills Frogs. Science and Society 26, 14, 2005.

SirinathsinghjiEC. Glyphosate Kills Rat Testes Cells. Science in Society 54, 34-36.

Clair E, Mesnage R, Travert C, Seralini GE. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decreases at lower levels. Toxicology In Vitro 2011 Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Ho MW. Lab study establishes glyphosate link to birth defects. Science in Society 48, 32-33, 2010.


At lower nontoxic concentrations of glyphosate 1 ppm males exhibit a testosterone decrease by 35

At lower nontoxic concentrations of glyphosate (1 ppm), males exhibit a testosterone decrease by 35%

mg/kg = ppm


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

So……

Are testosterone supplements correcting the cause…..or reacting to symptoms?


Monsanto s pledge

MONSANTO’S PLEDGE

“As an agricultural and technology company committed to human rights, we have a unique opportunity to protect and advance human rights. We have a responsibility to consider not only how our business can benefit consumers, farmers, and food processors, but how it can protect the human rights of both Monsanto’s employees and our business partners’ employees.”

Hugh Grant, Monsanto, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer

http://www.monsanto.com/whoweare/Pages/monsanto-pledge.aspx


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Consumer Benefits:

  • The 2011 Meeting of physicians found that in crop sprayed towns in Argentina there was a reduction in the average age and height of residents. In addition residents experienced increased, “birth defects, mutagenesis, miscarriages, depression and suicide, disorders of the central nervous system and other neurological pathologies; disabilities, spina bifida, lupus, leukemia and other types of cancers; chloracne and other skin problems; asthma, allergies, and other respiratory and lung-related problems; male sterility and impotence; hormonal disruption and other hormonal disorders; diminished childhood development; prolonged febrile syndrome without focus; children’s increased vulnerability to pollutants; anemia, multiple sclerosis cerebral ischemia, death.”

  • http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Pesticide_illnesses_and_GM_soya.php

  • http://www.reduas.fcm.unc.edu.ar/declaration-of-2nd-meeting-of-physicians-of-sprayed-and-fumigated-towns-and-villages/


Who is really benefiting

Who is really benefiting?


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

How Glyphosate Works as a broad spectrum herbicide.

  • Glyphosate inhibits the plant enzyme EPSPS in the shikimate pathway which disrupts the production of amino acids.

    • Amino acids are the building blocks for all proteins.

  • Glyphosate weakens secondary metabolism.

    • Secondary metabolism is responsible for production of plant defense compounds.

    • Disruption of secondary metabolism can cause premature cell death in the plant.

  • Glyphosate does not kill the plant. It weakens the plants immune systemfor pathogens to take over

Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. BiochemBiophys Res Commun, 1980, 94, 1207-1212.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

When glyphosate is applied to sterile soil (A), it does not kill the plant.

According to Purdue weed scientists, the actual plant assassins are severe disease-causing organisms present in almost all soils. Glyphosate dramatically promotes these, which in turn overrun the weakened crops with deadly infections.

Ho MW and Cherry B. Glyphosate tolerant crops bring diseases and death. Science in Society 47. 12-15, 2010.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Glyphosate tolerant crops are engineered to carry extra copies of the EPSPS gene.

  • These GM crops are tolerant to glyphosate, however they cannot metabolize it or get rid of it.

  • Therefore, glyphosate remains in the plant residues of GM crops destined to become food or animal feed.

  • Glyphosate does not degrade, it can remain in the soil for up to 25 years.

Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. BiochemBiophys Res Commun, 1980, 94, 1207-1212.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Glyphosates antimicrobial properties are increasing the occurrence and severity of plant pathogens.

  • Thirty-four plant diseases have been reported in the scientific literature to increase in occurrence as a result of glyphosate weed-eradication programs.

  • Not only are these plant diseases increasing, pesticide and herbicide use is steadily increasing due to “super weeds” which are becoming resistant to glyphosate.

Sirinathsinghji E. USDA Scientist Reveals All. Glyphosate Hazards to Crops, Soils, Animals and Consumer. Science in Society 53, 36-39, 2012.

Sirinathsinghji E. Monsanto Defeated By Roundup Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscience.org/In.asp, March 21st 2012.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Glyphosate is also a strong chelating agent and was originally designed and patented as such. Its effect and use as an herbicide have been afterthoughts.

  • Glyphosate was originally patented by Stauffer Chemicals in the early 1960s as a descaling agent [used to remove mineral residues inside dishwashers, vents and the like]. It was only by coincidence that it got spilled and it killed the weeds it contacted. It was subsequently purchased by Monsanto, and the rest is history.

Steinrucken HC, Amrhein N The herbicide glyphosate is a potent inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. BiochemBiophys Res Commun, 1980, 94, 1207-1212.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Chelation: to combine a metal ion with a cation to form a ring.

Weak Strong

  • A weak chelator can increasethe availability of plant nutrients, prevent leaching and the formation of precipitates, and decrease the toxicity of metal ions.

  • A strong chelator can decreasethe availability of plant nutrients rendering them unavailable for plant uptake. In particular,

    • Copper, Iron, Zinc and Manganese

Cakmak, I, Yazici, A, Tutus, Y, and Ozturk L. Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and iron in non-glyphosate resistant soybean.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Micronutrient Functions

Copper

  • An effective natural fungicide

  • Vital in the synthesis of lignin

    • Lignin is recognized as a partial barrier to the penetration of pathogens such as powdery mildew.

  • Functions as a cofactor for a variety of oxidative enzymes

    • These oxidative enzymes allow the plant to produce auto-immune response to plant pathogens.

Copper deficiency appears as chlorosis of young leaves; tips appear withered and will eventually die.

Hopkins WG, Hüner NP. 2004. Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Micronutrient Functions

Iron

  • Required by plants in the largest amounts.

  • Required for the synthesis of chlorophyll.

    • Involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and respiration.

  • Iron deficiencies lead to a simultaneous loss of chlorophyll and degeneration of chloroplast structure.

Iron deficiencies appear as young leaves with interveinal chlorosis and a sharp distinction between veins and chlorotic areas.

Hopkins WG, Hüner NP. 2004. Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Micronutrient Functions

Zinc

  • An activator for a large number of enzymes.

    • These enzymes drive many metabolic reactions in the plant.

    • Growth and development would stop if these metabolic reactions did not take place.

  • Needed in small quantities.

Zinc deficiencies are expressed as stunted growth and middle leaves with interveinal chlorosis. Young and/or old leaves become chlorotic in the later stages of the deficiency.

Hopkins WG, Hüner NP. 2004. Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Micronutrient Functions

Manganese

  • Required as a cofactor for a number of enzymes.

    • Plays a critical role in the respiratory carbon cycle.

  • Best known for its role in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) during photosynthesis

Manganese deficiency causes a spotty appearance and may cause extreme chlorosis between the leaf veins as wells as discoloration and deformities in legume seeds.

Hopkins WG, Hüner NP. 2004. Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA


Manganese the oec and water use efficiency

Manganese, the OEC and Water Use Efficiency

compbio.ucdenver.edu


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Oxygen Evolving Complex

  • Responsible for the splitting (oxidation) of water

  • Electrons supplied by a Mn and Ca cluster are the catalysts for the direct solar splitting of water for hydrogen production.

Hopkins WG, Hüner NP. 2004. Introduction of Plant Physiology. 3rd Edition. John Willy and Sons, Inc. USA


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

  • Manganese ions are directly responsible for the splitting of water and the plants efficiency of water use (Water Use Efficiency).

  • The availability of Manganese in the soil is vitalto the plants ability to efficiently use water in times of stress.

Cakmak, I, Yazici, A, Tutus, Y, and Ozturk L. Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and iron in non-glyphosate resistant soybean.

Zobiole LHS, Silverio de Oliveira RS Jr, Kremerb RB, Constantina J, Bonatoc CM, Muniz AS. Water use efficiency and photosynthesis of glyphosate-resistant soybean as affected by glyphosate. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 20120, 97, 182-193

ZobioleLHS, Bonini EA, Oliveira RS Jr, Kremer RJ, and Ferrarese-Filho O. Glyphosate affects lignin content and amino acid production in glyphosate-resistant soybean. ActaPhysiologiaePlantarium 2010, 32, 831-837

SirinathsinghjiE. US drought destroys GM corn. Science in Society 56 (to appear) 2012.


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

So....

If you are applying glyphosate (a strong chelator) to your crop, will your crop use water efficiently?


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

During a drought, organic dramatically outperforms industrial agriculture. Due to an increased Water Use Efficiency (WUE).

Photo and caption: Rodale Institute

SirinathsinghjiE. US drought destroys GM corn. Science in Society 56 (to appear) 2012.


And that is why we now have this

And that is why we now have this…

Are we correcting the cause….or simply reacting to the symptom?

Coming in 2013….


Historic changes in human health and crop production in the 21 st century reacting to symptoms or correcting the cause

Take Home Message:

  • Look at what has changed?

  • Work to correct the cause…not the symptom


Vertical integration

Vertical Integration

  • Describes a style of management control, where vertically integrated companies are united through a common owner.

  • Each member of the supply chain produces a different product or service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need.


Relationships among monsanto company pharmacia corporation pfizer inc and solutia inc

Relationships Among Monsanto Company, Pharmacia Corporation, Pfizer Inc., and Solutia Inc.

Prior to Sept. 1, 1997, a corporation that was then known as Monsanto Company (Former Monsanto) operated an agricultural products business (the Ag Business), a pharmaceuticals and nutrition business (the Pharmaceuticals Business) and a chemical products business (the Chemicals Business). Former Monsanto is today known as Pharmacia. Pharmacia is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Pfizer Inc., which together with its subsidiaries operates the Pharmaceuticals Business. Today’s Monsanto includes the operations, assets and liabilities that were previously the Ag Business. Today’s Solutia comprises the operations, assets and liabilities that were previously the Chemicals Business.

“….We have a responsibility to consider not only how our business can benefit consumers, farmers, and food processors, but how it can protect the human rights of both Monsanto’s employees and our business partners’ employees.” -Monsanto

http://www.monsanto.com/whoweare/Pages/monsanto-history.aspx


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