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Chapter 10. Principles of Six Sigma. Key Idea.

Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Principles of

Six Sigma

Although we view quality improvement tools and techniques from the perspective of Six Sigma, it is important to understand that they are simply a collection of methods that have been used successfully in all types of quality management and improvement initiatives, from generic TQM efforts, to ISO 9000, and in Baldrige processes.

- Defect– any mistake or error that is passed on to a customer
- Defects per unit (DPU) = number of defects discovered number of units produced
- Defects per million opportunities (dpmo) = DPU 1,000,000 opportunities for error

Six-Sigma Quality

- Ensuring that process variation is half the design tolerance (Cp = 2.0) while allowing the mean to shift as much as 1.5 standard deviations, resulting in at most 3.4 dpmo.

Although originally developed for manufacturing in the context of tolerance-based specifications, the Six Sigma concept has been operationalized to any process and has come to signify a generic quality level of at most 3.4 defects per million opportunities.

- Problem: any deviation between what “should be” and what “is” that is important enough to need correcting
- Structured
- Semistructured
- Ill-structured

- Problem Solving: the activity associated with changing the state of what “is” to what “should be”

- Conformance problems
- Unstructured performance problems
- Efficiency problems
- Product design problems
- Process design problems

- Financial return, as measured by costs associated with quality and process performance, and impacts on revenues and market share
- Impacts on customers and organizational effectiveness
- Probability of success
- Impact on employees
- Fit to strategy and competitive advantage

- Redefining and analyzing the problem
- Generating ideas
- Evaluating and selecting ideas
- Implementing ideas

A structured problem-solving process provides all employees with a common language and a set of tools to communicate with each other, particularly as members of cross-functional teams.

- Define
- Measure
- Analyze
- Improve
- Control

DMAIC

- Describe the problem in operational terms
- Drill down to a specific problem statement (project scoping)
- Identify customers and CTQs, performance metrics, and cost/revenue implications

- Key data collection questions
- What questions are we trying to answer?
- What type of data will we need to answer the question?
- Where can we find the data?
- Who can provide the data?
- How can we collect the data with minimum effort and with minimum chance of error?

- Focus on why defects, errors, or excessive variation occur
- Seek the root cause
- 5-Why technique
- Experimentation and verification

- Idea generation
- Brainstorming
- Evaluation and selection
- Implementation planning

- Maintain improvements
- Standard operating procedures
- Training
- Checklist or reviews
- Statistical process control charts

- Elementary statistics
- Advanced statistics
- Product design and reliability
- Measurement
- Process control
- Process improvement
- Implementation and teamwork

- Focus on optimizing product and process performance
- Features
- A high-level architectural view of the design
- Use of CTQs with well-defined technical requirements
- Application of statistical modeling and simulation approaches
- Predicting defects, avoiding defects, and performance prediction using analysis methods
- Examining the full range of product performance using variation analysis of subsystems and components

All Six Sigma projects have three key characteristics: a problem to be solved, a process in which the problem exists, and one or more measures that quantify the gap to be closed and can be used to monitor progress.

- Accuracy
- Cycle time
- Cost
- Customer satisfaction

- The 5S’s: seiri (sort), seiton (set in order), seiso (shine), seiketsu (standardize), and shitsuke (sustain).
- Visual controls
- Efficient layout and standardized work
- Pull production
- Single minute exchange of dies (SMED)
- Total productive maintenance
- Source inspection
- Continuous improvement