The dna connection
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The DNA Connection. Chromosomes are made of DNA. The DNA Code. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes. The sequence of bases in a gene forms a code. Every 3 Letters is called a CODON Code = protein. DNA carries the codes. DNA. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Double Stranded.

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The DNA Connection

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The DNA Connection


Chromosomes are made of DNA


The DNA Code


  • Each chromosome contains thousands of genes.


  • The sequence of bases in a gene forms a code


  • Every 3 Letters is called a CODON

  • Code = protein


  • DNA carries the codes


DNA

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

  • Double Stranded


DNA Bases

  • Purines:

  • 1. Adenine (A)

  • 2. Guanine (G)


  • Pyridimines

  • 1. Cytosine (C)

  • 2. Thymine (T)


DNA Base Pairing

  • A=T

  • G C


RNA Base Pairing

  • A=U *Uracil

  • There is NO “T” in RNA

  • G C


Transcription


  • The process by which RNA is made from DNA

  • Occurs in the Nucleus


  • Since DNA is too big to fit through the nuclear pores, messenger RNA is used to “read” DNA


RNA

  • Single Stranded

  • Same bases as DNA EXCEPT instead of T RNA contains U


  • After transcription mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches onto a ribosome


Translation


  • The message is translated into an amino acid sequence

  • Occurs on ribosomes


  • Every 3 Letters is called a CODON

  • Code = protein


  • Requires tRNA to translate the code


  • tRNA can only read 3 mRNA codes at one time (codon)


The Genetic Code

  • The Codon codes for which amino acid is to be made


  • Amino Acids – the building blocks of proteins


  • mRNA codon

  • UAC

  • Translated Code

  • Tyr


  • DNA Sequence:

  • A T G C A A T G C

  • U A C G U U A C G


  • RNA Sequence:

  • UAC GUU ACG

  • Amino Acids Produced:

Tyr – Val – Thr


DNA Mutations


Substitution


Deletion


Addition


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