UNIT 2. Part 2 THE CLASSICAL ERA IN THE EAST. The Big Questions. What were the major accomplishments of the civilizations of India and China during the “Classical Era”? How did these civilizations compare with the ones in the West?
THE CLASSICAL ERA IN THE EAST
The Big Questions
What were the major accomplishments of the civilizations of India and China during the “Classical Era”?
How did these civilizations compare with the ones in the West?
What factors contributed to the rise and fall of empires and dynasties in the East?
READ PAGES 74 TO 86 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK
In the centuries when Persia, Greece, and Rome dominated the West, a different series of empires and dynasties flourished in the east.
India witnessed a flowering of Hindu and Buddhist cultures, influencing all of South and Southeast Asia
China saw the emergence of great philosophers, who set the tone for much of Chinese thought and tradition.
After the collapse of Harappan civilization, the Dravidian people living in western India were conquered by the Aryan invaders (c.1500 B.C.)
Some people believe they came from central Asia
Others believe Aryan culture developed locally
Nomadic herders and warriors
Developed iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots
They continued to push native peoples farther south as they moved into the Ganges River valley
By 900 B.C., they had formed city-states (each ruled by its own ruler)
Developed Sanskrit writing (only taught to members of higher castes)
Developed a caste system (rigid social order)
The mixing of Aryan and native peoples led to a new social order
The new rules allowed only Aryans to occupy the higher social classes
There were 5 castes
Caste lines were rigid and based on birth
DRAW A DIAGRAM OF THE CASTE SYSTEM
Fill in thehinduism section of your religions chart
Major beliefs: believe in many deities, but each of these gods is a manifestation of one Supreme Being. Reincarnation – the belief that at death a person’s soul is reborn as another living thing. Karma refers to a person’s behavior in life which determines one’s form in the next life.
Sacred objects: The Ganges River – has the power to wash away sin and evil. The cow – sacred and religious…Hindus do not eat beef.
A new religion, Buddhism, began around 500 B.C.
Spread quickly and attracted many followers
Missionaries helped it spread throughout India and other Southeast Asian countries (Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Indochina)
It also spread to central Asia, China, Japan, and Korea
It was popular among many groups because it rejected the caste system
Reason for spread
Create a venn diagram showing what beliefs Buddhism borrowed from Hinduism
Create a chart comparing the spread of Buddhism with the spread of Christianity
Conquered the Shang dynasty
Justified rule as the Mandate of Heaven (ruler chosen by heaven and heaven would overthrow bad rulers)
Gave land to nobles in exchange for military service
Conquered neighboring peoples
6th century B.C., local nobles became too powerful and China was plunged into civil war
Greatest legacy of Zhou was the work of two philosophers, Confucius and Lao Tzu.
Create a cartoon about an accomplishment of the Qin or Zhou dynasties
Ruled an immense empire for 400 years
Han emperors were weakened by a series of rebellions
Provincial governors raised taxes and raised their own armies (some became local warlords)
Economic hardship and population growth
Emperor turned over power to a warlord and Han China collapsed into a series of civil wars and split into separate states
Create a diagram for the reasons for the decline of the Han Dynasty describing political, economic, and military weaknesses.
Fall of the Han Dynasty