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O. Voznyy , R. Stanowski, J.J. Dubowski Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

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Multibandgap quantum well wafers by IR laser quantum well intermixing: simulation of the lateral resolution of the process

O. Voznyy, R. Stanowski, J.J. Dubowski

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Research Center for Nanofabrication and Nanocharacterization

Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1K 2R1

Canada

- Motivation
- Modeling heat distribution and photoluminescence (PL) in QW wafers
- Temperature profiles induced in InGaAs/InGaAsP wafers by moving laser beam
- PL shift profiles
5.Summary

Motivation >

E0 E1 E2 E3

Multibandgap materials are needed for creation of photonic integrated circuits (lasers, modulators, waveguides, multi-color detectors etc. fabricated on same wafer)

Quantum well intermixing (QWI) – interdiffusion of wells and barriers resulting in the change of the well width, potential barrier height and energy of confined states.

Motivation >

Simulations [1] predict transition region ~300μmusing CW Nd:YAG laser irradiation (photoabsorbtion induced disordering) with a shadow mask[1]. Also, pulsed laser IR disordering(2-step process) has been proposed (~2μm transtion region possible[2]).

Our aim is to investigate Laser-RTA (annealing with a moving CW laser beam) as a flexible (1-step process) and potentially cost-effective technique.

[1] A. McKee, et. al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, pp. 45–55, Jan. 1997.

[2] B.S.Ooi,et. al. IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 40, pp.481–490, May 2004

Motivation >

In previous work [3] array of 12 lines of intermixed GaAs/AlGaAs QW material was successfully written with 5cm/s, 0.7mm CW Nd:YAG laser beam in a

14 mm x6 mm sample.

This approach has the potential to write complex patterns of intermixed material.

[3] J.J. Dubowski, et. al., Proc. SPIE, 5339, (2004).

Quantum well PL peak position

measured across the sample

irradiated with a fast scanning laser beam

that was used to generate a 12-line pattern.

Computation details >

To find heat distribution in a wafer we used FEMLAB commercial software.

Geometry is divided into small mesh elements with their own PDE parameters. Then the resulting system of PDEs is solved.

Heat transfer PDE:

Subdomain equation: Q - (kT)= Cp(T/t)

Boundary equation:kT=q0 + h(Tinf – T) + εσ(Tamb4 – T4)

For correct results temperature dependent thermal conductivity k and optical absorption α should be taken into account.

Computation details >

- Take diffusion coefficient as parameter
- Find concentration profile for given D and time
- Find energy profiles for electrons and holes (take into account bandgaps, band offsets, bandgap bowing)
- Solve Schrödinger equation, find energy levels and PL
- Approximate results as some function D(PL shift)

If T(t)=const (like with RTA):

LD = – diffusion length.

Otherwise one needs to solve numerically

D assumed to be the same for different atomic species.

Computation details >

Compare simulations and experimental PLshift(Tanneal) data for the same annealing time, find D(Tanneal)

Build Arrhenius plot lnD(1/kT) and find parameters for

D=D0exp(-EA/kT)

Now we can find PL shift

for any T and time.

Computation details >

To achieve T needed for intermixing, different power needed for different beam diameters.

For small diameters <0.5mm power densities become higher than surface damage threshold (>30W/mm2).

Needed power density can be reduced using background heating.

270 W/mm2

700 W/mm2

1500 W/mm2

Computation details >

With laser fast scanning (Laser-RTA) we can heat samples to same temperatures, with smaller beam diameters and avoid surface damage.

Power needed to heat the wafer to TQWI increases a little,but fluence drops down significantly (shorter dwell time).

TQWI

TQWI

Computation details >

d=100μm

Depth, μm

100

50

0

0 50 100 Lateral, μm

d=12μm

Depth, μm

100

50

0

0 50 100 Lateral, μm

For small beam diameters T drops down with depth very fast.

InP is transparent to Nd:YAG wavelength at RT, but

Eg(InP)=1.165eV at 500°C, andα=104-106cm-1 at higherT.

Thus, all the energy is absorbed on the surface and goes inside only by heat conduction.

Temperature profiles >

- For small samples slower speed results in raise of background temperature.
- For big wafers heat dissipates faster and temperature profiles don’t depend on scanning speed (laser power is adjusted to achieve same Tsurface).
- Background heating helps to achieve wanted T.

PL shift profiles >

- To calculate PL shift profile for moving beam we need:
- calculate concentration and energy profiles using given T(t) and D(T) at different distances from line center,
- solve Schrödinger equation and find PL shift.

PL shift profiles >

Due to varying T(t), PL shift profile for moving beam differs from that of stationary beam, although temperature profiles are the same.

PL shift profile shape doesn’t depend on Tmax.

Higher temperatures reduce processing time significantly.

PL shift resolution and processing time

- Processing time for 100nm PL shift along one 2-inch line assuming Tmax=1073K (which requires 90s to get the same PL shift with RTA).
- Practical applications will require shifts < 50nm.

- Irradiation with the moving CW Nd:YAG laser been has been investigated for selective area writing of the QWI material.
- For large size wafers (2 inch) temperature profiles don’t depend on scanning speed (assuming that beam power is adjusted to achieve the same Tmax).
- Processing time to achieve targeted PL (badgap) shifts depends on beam diameter and Tmax.
- To achieve reasonable processing time without loss in resolution
a) QWs should be very close to surface,

b) Tmax should be as high as allowed by material decomposition temperature

- Background heating can be used to further decrease processing time (especially for deep QWs) but decreasing also resolution.
- Lateral PL shift resolution of 5μm is feasible (InGaAs/InGaAsP QW material system) with the12μm beam Laser-RTA.
Support

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)

Canada Research Chair (CRC) Program