The jacobite rebellion of 1745
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The Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. Objectives. In this activity you will: Learn why the rebellion failed. Discuss the role of Bonnie Prince Charlie in the rebellion. Why did the rebellion fail?. Read the following screens and make notes about why you think the rebellion failed.

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The Jacobite Rebellion of 1745

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The jacobite rebellion of 1745

The Jacobite Rebellion of 1745


Objectives

Objectives

In this activity you will:

  • Learn why the rebellion failed.

  • Discuss the role of Bonnie Prince Charlie in the rebellion.


Why did the rebellion fail

Why did the rebellion fail?

  • Read the following screens and make notes about why you think the rebellion failed.


Background to the rebellion

Background to the rebellion

  • Many Scots disliked having to pay taxes to the Government in London and wanted the Stuarts to return to the throne.

  • Bonnie Prince Charlie was the grandson of King James II.

  • France was at war with England. In 1744, King Louis XV supported the Stuart claim to the throne.

  • The Stuarts were based in Paris. Bonnie Prince Charlie, known as the ‘Young Pretender’, landed with seven supporters in Scotland in July 1745 to join the rebellion.


Bonnie prince charlie

Bonnie Prince Charlie

  • Bonnie Prince Charlie believed the majority of Scots opposed English rule.

  • He had strong support amongst the Scottish Highlanders.

  • Many English troops were fighting abroad and there were less English troops in Scotland.

  • Therefore, if he gained quick victories against the English, support for his cause would grow.

  • He wanted the Stuarts to be the rulers of Scotland and England.

  • In August 1745, he raised his standard at Glenfinnan.

  • He was joined by some of the largest clans, for example the Cameron and Fraser clans.

  • He captured Edinburgh and gained more supplies for his army

  • He then won a military victory at Prestonpans.


Bonnie prince charlie1

Bonnie Prince Charlie

  • Bonnie Prince Charlie decided to invade England against the advice of his generals.

  • He believed many English Catholics would support his cause. However, the majority of English Catholics remained loyal to the King of England. His army reached Derby, which was only a 130 miles from London. However, the weather was getting colder and his army was running out of supplies.

  • His generals and many of his highlander troops wanted to return to Scotland. Therefore he ordered a retreat to the Highlands.

  • His army was pursued by the larger and better equipped forces of the Duke of Cumberland.

  • Once in Scotland, many highlanders left Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army, even though they had defeated a government army at the Battle of Falkirk.


Trigger causes of the failure of the rebellion

Trigger causes of the failure of the rebellion

  • The Battle of Culloden in April 1746.

  • The Duke of Cumberland’s army finally caught up with the Jacobites at Culloden.

  • The Duke of Cumberland’s forces numbered 9000. The Jacobite forces totalled 5000.

  • The English forces were better armed and trained. They also had a powerful cannon.

  • The Jacobite troops were short of food.

  • The boggy terrain did not suit Jacobite military tactics, which consisted of a ferocious charge at the enemy lines.

  • The Jacobite forces were completely defeated.


Why did the rebellion fail1

Why did the rebellion fail?

You need to know the locations of important places during the 1745 Jacobite rebellion. This will help you understand why the rebellion failed.

Using the internet and other resources, such as an atlas, label the map with the following places:

  • Glenfinnan/Edinburgh

  • Derby/London

  • Falkirk/Culloden

  • Prestonpans/Highlands

  • Lowlands

    An example label has been included.

London


Why did the rebellion fail2

Why did the rebellion fail?

Using your notes and textbook, write a paragraph choosing one cause as the most important for the failure of the 1745 rebellion, and explain why. The grid below highlights some key reasons.


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