Cooperative Learning. The students will learn what educational research has shown about cooperative learning. The students will learn effective methods to implement cooperative learning into their classrooms. Introduction Something to Think About.
The students will learn what educational research has shown about cooperative learning. The students will learn effective methods to implement cooperative learning into their classrooms.
There are 125 sheep and 5 dogs in a flock. How old is the shepherd?
3 of 4 students in late elementary and middle school produce an answer.
Clearly, there are some problems with the current way in which we do things.
Most students believe that mathematics is a rule-oriented body of knowledge acquired through memorization.
Mathematics is a static body of knowledge!
It is a difficult subject mastered by a very few that have an innate ability.
Given 100 ninth grade students
Textbooks determine what is taught in schools.
There is an over reliance on “Spiral” curriculum
Textbooks need updating – add probability, statistics, modeling, etc.
In reality, no one can teach mathematics. Effective teachers are those who can stimulate students to learn mathematics. Education research offers compelling evidence that students learn mathematics well only when they construct their own mathematical understanding. To understand what they learn, they must enact for themselves verbs that permeate the mathematics curriculum: “examine,” “represent,” “transform,” “solve,” “apply,” “prove,” “communicate.” This happens most readily when students work in groups, engage in discussion, make presentations, and in other ways take charge of their own learning.
Everybody Counts (National Research Council 1989, pp. 58-59)
“The teachers’ role should include those of consultant, moderator, and interlocutor, not just presenter and authority. Classroom activities must encourage students to express their approaches, both orally and in writing. Students must engage mathematics as a human activity; they must learn to work cooperatively in small teams to solve problems as well as argue convincingly for their approach amid conflicting ideas and strategies.”
Everybody Counts: A Report to the Nation On The Future of Mathematics Education, National Research Council, 1989
What follows will constitute four of the ways a teacher is involved in a cooperative problem-solving lesson.
A duel assessment scheme can be used to include both group and individual accountability.
1. Students work in their assigned groups to solve a problem and write a single group solution.
2. Students work individually to answer questions about their group’s solution and to solve similar problems.
A similar duel scheme is used for grading.
1. The teacher grades each group’s solution and all students in the group receive the same score for that solution.
2. The teacher grades individual student work consisting of three types of problems. A. A question for understanding. B. A parallel problem. C. An extension problem. (May be a home assignment.)
- record all the group’s work.
CHECKER & PRAISER/CHEERLEADER
- check all calculations
- provide positive reinforcement.
The three sides of a triangle have lengths a, b, and c. All three lengths are whole numbers and a ≤ b ≤ c.
0: Complete misunderstanding of the problem
1: Part of the problem is misunderstood or misinterpreted
2: Complete understanding of the problem
0: No attempt or inappropriate plan
1: Partially correct plan based on a correct interpretation.
2: Plan could have or did lead to a correct solution.
0: No answer or wrong due to a poor plan
1: Copying error; computational error; partial correct answer
2: Correct answer with correct label