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EnerGY : SPACECRAFT ENGINEERING & SCIENCE. Kelly L. Perry NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory University of Southern California [email protected] ENGINEERING ENERGY. MISSION PHASES LAUNCH CRUISE TOUR SPACECRAFT POWER INSTRUMENTATION SCIENCE. Cassini Spacecraft.

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EnerGY : SPACECRAFT ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

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Energy spacecraft engineering science

EnerGY: SPACECRAFT ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

Kelly L. Perry

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

University of Southern California

[email protected]


Engineering energy

ENGINEERING ENERGY

  • MISSION PHASES

    • LAUNCH

    • CRUISE

    • TOUR

  • SPACECRAFT POWER

  • INSTRUMENTATION

  • SCIENCE


Cassini spacecraft

Cassini Spacecraft

  • Cassini is 22 ft tall and 13 ft wide

  • Weighs more than 10,000 pounds

  • 12 Science Instruments

  • Scientists and engineers from 17 different countries worked together to build Cassini

  • Launched in 1997 and began to orbit Saturn in July 2004

    • 2 million mile journey

  • Spacecraft travels at speeds between 2-12 miles per second

    • Around the Rose Bowl Loop in 1-4 times per second


Launch

LAUNCH

  • Energy for launch was obtained by combustion of chemical propellants

  • Used Titan IVB/Centaur

    • 2.2 million pounds at launch

    • 2 solid-propellant stage-zero motors, a liquid propellant 2-stage core and a 16.7ft diameter payload fairing

  • Cassini required upgraded solid rocket boosters and a Centaur high-energy stage

  • Launched from Cape Canaveral on Oct 15, 1997

If Cassini were launched from the equator, would it have required more or less energy?


Cruise

CRUISE

  • Rocket was most powerful available, but it wasn’t good enough

  • GRAVITY ASSISTS were needed

    • Used since the 1970s

    • Increases Cassini’s sun-relative speed by using gravity during fly-bys

      • Require 3 bodies: spacecraft, assisting body and central body

      • Example: Cassini, Venus and the sun


Energy spacecraft engineering science

TOUR

  • Propellant used to change trajectory

  • Gravity Assists Continue: Cassini, Titan, Saturn

    • Titan is Saturn’s largest moon.

    • Larger than Mercury

    • Has an atmosphere (Nitrogen) that resembles Earth several billion years ago

  • Do Gravity Assists violate the Law of the Conservation of Energy?

    • What is the cost of the energy gained?


Spacecraft power

SPACECRAFT POWER

  • Cassini obtains its power from 3 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs)

    • NOT NUCLEAR REACTORS

    • DO NOT USE FISSION OR FUSION

    • Provide power through the natural radioactive decay of plutonium

      • Pu-238 (non-weapons grade isotope)

    • Heat generated by decay is converted to electricity

  • Power is a negotiated resource on the spacecraft!!!


Instrumentation

INSTRUMENTATION

  • Optical Remote Sensing

    • Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS)

    • Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS)

    • Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS)

    • Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)

  • Fields, Particles and Waves

    • Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS)

    • Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA)

    • Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS)

    • Magnetometer (MAG)

    • Magnetospheric Imagining Instrument (MIMI)

    • Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS)

  • Microwave Remote Sensing

    • RADAR

    • Radio Science (RSS)


Science pac man fever

SCIENCE: PAC-MAN FEVER


Science titan

SCIENCE: TITAN

RADAR confirmed existence of large lakes & rivers

(images from saturn.jpl.nasa.gov)

Side-by-Side comparison of largest lake found on Titan (22 Feb 2007) and Lake Superior


Saturn s rings overview

Saturn’s Rings Overview

  • Main rings would span from the Earth to the Moon

    • The rings are only half of a mile thick

  • Composed of Ice, Rocks and Dirt

    • Particles the size of dust to mountains

  • The Rings are still growing

    • The E-Ring is fed by eruptions from Enceladus


Science waves in rings

SCIENCE: WAVES IN Rings


Science wakes in rings

SCIENCE: WAKES IN RINGS


Science prometheus

SCIENCE: Prometheus

  • Shepherding satellite, constraining the inner edge of the F-Ring

  • Irregular shape: 12.4 mi in diameter

  • Probably a porous ice body


Science enceladus

SCIENCE: ENCELADUS

27 November 2005: Jets of Icy Particles burst from Enceladus


Searching for life ocean color

Searching for Life: Ocean Color

  • Green Flagellates: 440 and 665 nm

  • Diatoms: 440, 500-540 nm

  • Dinoflagellates: 440, 500-540 nm

  • Cyanobacteria: 440, 495, 600-640 nm


Searching for life

Searching for Life

Marine Mammal Care Center in San Pedro

www.marinemammalcare.org


Harmful algal blooms

Harmful Algal Blooms

  • DOMOIC ACID Poisoning

  • aka Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning

  • Toxin released by Pseudo-nitzschia

(Photos provided by Robin Riggs, 2005)


Harmful algal blooms1

Harmful Algal Blooms

  • HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) occurs when toxic algae grow too quickly

    • Not all algae or algal blooms are toxic!

Non-Toxic Red Tide in New Zealand

(image from www.whoi.edu/redtide/)

  • Pseudo-nitzschia blooms are trickier!

    • They’re invisible!


Habs of socal

HABs of SoCal


Habs of socal1

HABs of SoCal


Climate signal

CLIMATE SIGNAL

  • During El Nino events, sea level and SST in California are higher than normal.

    • Thermocline deepens

    • Northward flow brings low nutrient waters

    • Lower Phytoplankton due to less nutrients

  • Time for RADAR!!!


El nino demo time

EL NINO DEMO TIME!!!


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