the eye the action receptor potential
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The Eye & The Action (Receptor) Potential

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The Eye & The Action (Receptor) Potential. Packet #20 Chapter #49. Structure of the Eye. The Retina. Contains two types of photoreceptors Rods Black and white vision Cones Color vision

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Presentation Transcript
the retina
The Retina
  • Contains two types of photoreceptors
    • Rods
      • Black and white vision
    • Cones
      • Color vision
  • These photoreceptors connect to a series of neurons that ultimately lead to the optic nerve which ultimately leads to the brain.
the structure of the rod
The Structure of the Rod
  • Contains disks that has the protein called rhodopsin within the disk’s membrane.
  • Rhodopsin
    • Contains two polypeptide chains called retinal and opsin.
retinal
Retinal
  • Exists in two forms
    • Cis isomer
      • Exists when there is absence of light
    • Trans isomer
      • Exists when there is a presence of light
the production of a receptor potential in a rod cell
The Production of a Receptor Potential in a Rod Cell
  • Light isomerizes retinal, which activates rhodopsin.
    • What typeof enzyme would be used to make the change?
    • Retinal changes from the cisform to the trans form.
      • Ultimately causes rhodopsin to become active.
production of a receptor potential i
Production of a Receptor Potential I
  • Light isomerizes retinal, which activate rhodopsin.
production of a receptor potential ii
Production of a Receptor Potential II
  • Active rhodopsin in turn activate a G protein called transducin.
production of a receptor potential iii
Production of a Receptor Potential III
  • Transducin activates the enzyme phodiesterase (PDE).
production of a receptor potential iv
Production of a Receptor Potential IV
  • Activated PDE detaches cyclic guanosinemonophosphate (cGMP) from Na+ channels in the plasma membrane by hydrolyzing cGMP to GMP.
production of a receptor potential iv1
Production of a Receptor Potential IV
  • The sodium channels close when cGMP detaches. The membrane’s permeability to Na+ decreases, and the rod hyperpolarizes.
production of a receptor potential vi
Production of a Receptor Potential VI
  • The action potential moves along a series of nerve cells.
    • Horizontal
    • Bipolar
    • Amacrine
    • Ganglion cell
  • The message ultimately reaches the optic nerve fibers which lead to the brain.
homework
Homework
  • Know how the eye focuses.
  • Know the cause of near and far sightedness.
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