Detection and Impact of BVDV in Zoos and Wildlife Parks. J.F. Evermann D.D. Nelson M.J. Dark* College of Veterinary Medicine Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164 [email protected] *University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 1/26/09.
Free-roaming wildlife animals in zoos and wildlife parks?
“Serologic surveys in free-ranging and captive wildlife animal populations demonstrated prior infection with BVDV or related pestiviruses in more than 40 species in North America”
Frolich & Hoffman,
“While serologic surveys indicated exposure/infection of wild ruminants to BVDV is common, isolation of the virus from these species is only rarely reported”
Nelson, et al, 2008
Mule deer wild ruminants to BVDV is common, isolation of the virus from these species is only rarely reported”
Barasingha deerBVDV isolation (hence susceptibility to infection and virus replication)
Courtesy of Dr. J. Ridpath wild ruminants to BVDV is common, isolation of the virus from these species is only rarely reported”
Isolation of a pestivirus from goat 1 prompted a serosurvey of the ruminants in the collection. Both EDTA and serum were collected.
Eland* wild ruminants to BVDV is common, isolation of the virus from these species is only rarely reported”
Mouse deer (zoo)
Mt. goats (captive)
Vilcek et al, 2000
Grondahl et al, 2003
Passler et al, 2003
Duncan et al, 2008
Duncan et al, 2008
Nelson et al, 2008Evidence for BVD PI or susceptibility to BVD congenital infections in wildlife
* Common cattle ranching area
** experimental infection
*** natural infection
(species survival plans)
Sporadic episodes of BVD have occurred in some zoos (& wildlife parks) with serious illness and death, suggests that BVD vaccination of captive wild ruminants can be justified. We recommend that only killed BVD vaccines be used in captive exotic ruminants.
Doyle & Heuschele, 1983
The authors wish to express their thanks to Drs. Neil Call and Mike Briggs for case referrals. Appreciation to the faculty and staff at Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab for insights and case support. Thanks to Dr. Julia Ridpath for her support of the molecular epidemiology of BVDV and Ms. Trista Harvey and BCU crew for help with the PowerPoint.