Chapter 7
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Chapter 7. Basic Airway Control. Overview. Anatomy Review Physiology Personal Protective Equipment Open Assess Suction Secure. Anatomy Review. Teeth Trauma can dislodge teeth, causing a potential airway obstruction Bleed profusely when disrupted. Anatomy Review.

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Basic Airway Control


Overview

Overview

  • Anatomy Review

  • Physiology

  • Personal Protective Equipment

  • Open

  • Assess

  • Suction

  • Secure


Anatomy review

Anatomy Review

  • Teeth

    • Trauma can dislodge teeth, causing a potential airway obstruction

    • Bleed profusely when disrupted


Anatomy review1

Anatomy Review

  • Lower jawbone is the mandible

    • Serves as the floor of the mouth

    • Attached to the mandible is the tongue

  • Upper jawbone is the maxilla

    • Holds the roof of the mouth, or the hard palate


Anatomy review2

Anatomy Review

  • Palate is the border between the floor of the nose and the roof of the mouth

  • Most normal breathing occurs through the nose

  • Nose is responsible for:

    • Smelling aromas in the air

    • Adding moisture to the airway

    • Raising the temperature of the air to the body temperature


Anatomy review3

Anatomy Review

  • Pharynx

    • Area in the back of the throat where the oral cavity and the nasal cavity meet

  • Tongue

    • One of the most important structures in the mouth

    • Enables us to taste and helps with our speech


Anatomy review4

Anatomy Review


Anatomy review5

Anatomy Review

  • Sublingual area

    • Medications are often deposited under the tongue to be absorbed into the bloodstream, due to the rich blood supply found in this area

  • Esophagus

    • Tube through which food passes when we swallow


Anatomy review6

Anatomy Review

  • Trachea (windpipe)

  • Epiglottis

    • Prevents accidental passage of food into the airway during swallowing

  • Larynx

    • Uppermost structure of the lower airway


Anatomy review7

Anatomy Review


Anatomy review8

Anatomy Review

  • Gag reflex

    • Protective response

    • May lead to vomiting


Stop and review

Stop and Review

  • What is the trachea responsible for?

  • What is the esophagus?

  • What is the epiglottis responsible for?

  • Which structure represents the uppermost portion of the lower airway?


Physiology

Physiology

  • Oxygen is required to allow the cells of the body to produce energy

  • Lungs supply body with oxygen

  • Lungs get oxygen from the air inhaled into the airway

  • Airway starts at the mouth and ends in the lungs


Physiology1

Physiology

  • If a patient cannot maintain her own airway, the EMT must assist in its maintenance

  • Movement of air into and out of the lungs is called breathing or ventilation


Physiology2

Physiology

  • Signs of an obstructed airway

    • Unconsciousness

    • Snoring sound is indicative of a partial obstruction

    • Breathlessness (apnea)

    • Blue discoloration (cyanosis)


Physiology3

Physiology

  • The tongue is the single most common cause of airway obstruction!

  • EMTs must quickly recognize the patient with a complete airway obstruction and provide an effective remedy


Personal protective equipment

Personal Protective Equipment

  • An EMT protecting the airway is at increased risk of exposure to:

    • Blood

    • Sputum

    • Saliva

  • In addition to gloves, be sure to wear eye protection and mask


Chapter 7 6913422

Open

  • When assessing a patient, the first question to ask is:

    • Is the airway open or patent?

  • The number one priority when assessing the patient is airway, airway, airway!

  • Without an airway you have no patient; it’s that simple


Chapter 7 6913422

Open

  • Air should move in and out of the mouth and nose without difficulty

  • Because of the potential for airway blockage or occlusion, EMTs must monitor the airway frequently

  • If cervical spine injury is suspected, special care must be taken to avoid moving the neck during airway management


Chapter 7 6913422

Open

  • Proper positioning

    • Unconscious patients found on the ground either face down or prone must be approached with a high index of suspicion for cervical spinal trauma

    • Consider turning patient to the side or the recovery position if no spinal injury is suspected; this facilitates fluid drainage and helps prevent aspiration


Chapter 7 6913422

Open

  • Head tilt, chin lift

    • The most common airway maneuver used by EMTs is the head tilt, chin lift

      • Reserved for patient for whom trauma, specifically neck injury, has been ruled out

      • Easily performed by single rescuer


Head tilt chin lift

Head Tilt, Chin Lift

  • View this video clip demonstrating the head tilt, chin lift maneuver

  • The animation of this maneuver shows how it opens the airway


Chapter 7 6913422

Open

  • Jaw thrust

    • If a possible neck injury is suspected or when the patient’s condition is unknown, the jaw thrust needs to be used

      • Involves lifting the mandible

      • Tongue attached to mandible

      • Lifting the mandible lifts the tongue off the back of the airway


Jaw thrust

Jaw Thrust

  • View this video clip demonstrating the jaw thrust maneuver

  • The animation of this maneuver shows how it opens the airway


Assess

Assess

  • Any condition that may affect the patency of the airway should be found and addressed

    • Secretions

    • Foreign matter

    • Broken teeth, dental hardware


Assess1

Assess

  • Obstruction

    • If the airway is obstructed and simple airway maneuvers such as head tilt, chin lift or jaw thrust do not remedy the problem, consider the possibility of a foreign body airway obstruction

    • Follow American Heart Association or American Red Cross guidelines for management of such a condition


Stop and review1

Stop and Review

  • What is the number one priority when assessing the patient?

  • Which structure is the most common cause of airway obstruction?

  • What technique is used to open the airway if a cervical spinal injury is suspected?


Suction

Suction

  • Unconscious patients cannot clear oral secretions

  • Every unconscious patient must be suctioned!

  • Don’t forget to take the suction with you to the call!


Suction1

Suction

  • The suction machine

    • Manual suction

    • Electric suction


Suction2

Suction

  • The catheter

    • Tonsil tip

      • Used for saliva or liquid material

    • Yankauer

      • Used to suction thick secretions such as clots

    • French catheter

      • Used to suction external nares, opening of a tracheostomy, and when suctioning through an endotracheal tube


Suction3

Suction


Suction4

Suction

  • Suction tubing

    • Serves as the conduit from the suctioned material to the machine and from the suction to the patient

    • Ensure all connections fit tightly so that the suction machine produces an adequate volume


Suction5

Suction

  • Water

    • Suction setup should have water available to enable cleaning of the catheter if it becomes clogged


Suction6

Suction

  • The procedure

    • Open the airway

    • Preoxygenate patient

    • Assemble equipment

    • Measure catheter

    • Open mouth using cross-finger technique

    • Suction no more than 15 seconds


Suction7

Suction

  • Watch this video clip demonstrating suctioning


Secure

Secure

  • Oropharyngeal airway (OPA)

    • Designed to keep the tongue off the roof of the mouth and from falling into the back of the mouth

    • Creates an artificial channel for the passage of oxygen into the trachea

    • Acts as a bite block


Secure1

Secure

  • Oropharyngeal airways (OPAs)

    • Do not use OPAs with intact gag reflexes

    • Be alert for possible stimulation of gag reflex and the potential for vomiting

    • Be sure to measure and use the right size of OPA; an improperly measured OPA can actually occlude the airway


Secure2

Secure


Secure3

Secure

  • Watch this video clip for demonstration of insertion of the OPA

  • The animation of this maneuver shows how it opens the airway


Secure4

Secure

  • Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA or nasal airway)

    • Easy to use

    • Soft, flexible tube that extends from the external nostril through the nose and into the back of the throat

    • The NPA does not induce a gag reflex


Secure5

Secure

  • Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA or nasal airway)

    • Can be used if patient does not tolerate an OPA

    • NPA does not substitute for manual control of the airway, and an EMT should maintain either the jaw thrust or the head tilt, chin lift maneuver as needed


Secure6

Secure


Secure7

Secure

  • Watch this video clip demonstrating insertion of an NPA


Stop and review2

Stop and Review

  • Name the three types of catheters commonly used to suction a patient.

  • What do you need to remember to do before suctioning the patient?

  • How long should you suction for (maximum seconds)?

  • Name two devices used as airway adjuncts.


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